Sunday, March 21, 2010

Treatment for Persistent Diarrhea

There are two main goals of treatment of persistent diarrhea are:
1. Prevent dehydration with oral rehydration alrutan as for acute diarrhea
2. Maintain nutritional status through proper diet

Ada3 main diet for the treatment of persistent diarrhea, namely:
1. Diet A: Includes Low milk diet, cereals, legumes, nuts, and oils
2. Diet B: Includes animal's milk-free diet, low-starch diet, cereals, nuts, oils
3. Diet C: includes starch and disaccharide-free diet, glucose, protein, oil (chicken
or egg)

Start with a diet of A unless the child is dehydrated or watery bowel movement for more than seven times a day. If the child is dehydrated or watery bowel movement for more than seven times a day, give diet B.
Diet A Diet B and switch to switch to Diet C if it is in the following situations:
- Dehydration
- Complications of intestinal
- Severe weight loss
- If the frequency of diarrhea for more than seven times a day, after six days, and no significant weight
loss or poor weight gain
If Diet C also fails, it is necessary to bring the child to hospital for treatment.

There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of antibiotics in cases of persistent diarrhea. Antibiotics are recommended only if specific bacteria have been isolated from samples of human feces and identified as the cause of persistent diarrhea.
Antibiotics are also recommended for dysentery. Antibiotic choice will depend on the results of laboratory tests. In this test, bacteria originally isolated from human feces samples and grown on artificial medium / artificial. Sensitivity to various antibiotics examined. Antibiotics are most effective against bacteria that were grown from a sample of human feces that is what is recommended

Saturday, March 20, 2010

Factors That Increase Risk of Persistent Diarrhea

There are seven main factors that increase the risk of persistent diarrhea, namely:
1. Age
Risk of persistent diarrhea, especially after an episode of acute diarrhea were higher in
babies less than a year old
2. Poor Nutrition
Duration of diarrhea and malnutrition increase the risk of persistent diarrhea
3. Natural Immune Mechanism
Children who have poor immune mechanisms, because of malnutrition,
disease, or other factors, have a higher risk for diarrhea
4. Previous infection
Increased risk of persistent diarrhea 2-4 times during the months after the episode of diarrhea
acute. Many babies affected persistent diarrhea after measles infection
5. Dairy Animals
Children who drink the milk of animals have a higher risk for diarrhea
persistent. This can be caused by:
- Milk contaminated animal disease-causing bacteria
- Damage to the intestinal wall by a protein present in animal milk
- Intolerance to lactose, which is a protein present in milk
- Some unknown mechanism
6. Bacteria that Cause Disease
Less than 50% of children with persistent diarrhea in the infection-causing bacteria
disease. Of the few bacteria that can cause persistent diarrhea, Escherichia
Coli, Shigella, and Criptosporidium more common.
7. Antibiotics
It is important to remember that the treatment of diarrhea with antibiotics and drugs
reduce bowel movements are likely to prolong the duration of diarrhea. This
due to a decrease bowel movement led to increased bacterial contact
with a wall of the intestine that aggravate symptoms.

Friday, March 19, 2010

How to Prevent Diarrhea

Here's how to avoid diarrhea:
- Give Mother's Milk exclusively until four to six months and continue breastfeeding
up to one year
- Avoid giving milk bottles
- After 4-6 months of age, provide nutritious food, clean, and safe
- Use only cooked food is cooked to feed the children
- Clean the place used to collect and store drinking water every
- If you are unsure about the quality of drinking water, boil for 10 minutes and shut and
store them in the same place
- Avoid contact between hands and drink water when present
- Wash hands with soap in running water before feeding the child,
- Dispose of human waste are expelled child in the toilet as soon as possible
- Immediately wash affected clothes in warm water with human faces
- Please provide measles immunization to children at age 9 months because of the risk of severe diarrhea
and higher malnutrition after measles infection
- Ensure that areas where children play keep clean. Wash children's toys

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Food Recommended For Diarrhea

Therefore, it is important for nutrient-nutrient to replace those lost. Some people think that eating less can rest his gut and help control diarrhea. This is not true and is not recommended, because the material on acute diarrhea, more than 60% continue to absorb nutrients from the intestine.
The majority of children tolerate milk during diarrhea milk consumption and therefore should not be stopped or reduced. Children should be given a larger semi-dense foods rich in energy. Also, it is advisable to give them a diet rich in potassium. Semi-solid foods are energy-rich starch water, watery porridge made from cereals, bananas, finely ground, finely crushed potato, with a little oil, and rice with milk. Children also should be given an orange. It is advisable to avoid foods rich in fiber, like vegetables, sprouts and spicy foods.
Most children with reduced appetite during diarrhea. Therefore, give them their food in small portions but frequently. Providing food once every two or three hours is usually enough. After the diarrhea stops, give a one-time more food until the recommended weight for his age is reached.

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Drug Used For Treatment of Diarrhea

It is important to remember that some drugs are not recommended for diarrhea, either because of dangerous or because it is not useful. Such drugs include sulphonamides, neomycin, and streptomycin, oksikuinolin terhalogensi kliokuinol or another, ie, drugs that reduce intestinal movements and thereby reduce the frequency of bowel movements, medications that control the vomiting, ie, kaolin and charcoal, and stimulant drugs drugs that stimulate bowel movements, and increased frequency of bowel movements.

The following drugs are recommended for specific causes of diarrhea.
Drug: Tetracycline
General effects: Pain in stomach discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting. Tablet iron reduces the absorption of tetracycline and should therefore avoid drunk together

Shigella dysentery
Drugs: Co-trimoksazol, Ampicillin, nalidixic acid
General effects: Pain in stomach discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, dizziness.May influence the effects of drugs, such as drugs for diabetes, aspirin

Drug: Metronidazole
General effects: Muscle oerut, the bitter taste in the mouth loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness irritable

Drugs: Metronodazol
General effects: Drinking alcohol together may exacerbate the effects of metronidazole side

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

When fluid infusion Needed And What The fluid infusion Weakness

Intravenous fluids to treat dehydration usually recommended in the five conditions:
1. Severe dehydration with or without signs of shock (reduced blood volume in
2. Fatigue, lethargy or coma
3. Uncontrolled vomiting
4. Decreased or absence of urine thrown in a long time
5. Complications of oral rehydration solution of any kind which could not be given

There are five main deficiencies of infusion fluids:
1. Expensive
2. It takes a person trained to provide the fluid in this way
3. Insufficiency of facilities in a remote area
4. The high risk of infection when technique-technique or the materials used are not clean
5. The possibility of over-hydration and inadequate hydration higher
compared with treatment with oral rehydration solution (ORS example)

Monday, March 15, 2010

When Oral Rehydration Solution Must Suspended And What Benefits Oral Rehydration Solution

Oral rehydration solution should be stopped after the diarrhea stops. Gift must also be stopped temporarily if oral rehydration solution failed to improve dehydration and / or child
affected by complications from diarrhea.
Oral rehydration solution is not recommended in cases of severe dehydration, exhaustion, and if no urine is discarded.

Oral rehydration solution has four main advantages:
1. Easily obtained
2. Easily given
3. Not expensive
4. Effective in treating mild or moderate dehydration

Sunday, March 14, 2010

Treatment For Diarrhea

Mild and moderate dehydration can be treated with oral rehydration solution, and severe dehydration were treated with intravenous fluids. World Health Organization recommends oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and glucose anhidrus.
Steps to prepare oral rehydration solution than a standard package includes:
- Wash hands and dry with a clean cloth
- Take one liter of clean water
- Mix one full pack of oral rehydration solution in one liter of the
- Keep containers of oral rehydration solution is still closed
- Give this solution to the child according to the explanation
- Use this solution within 24 hours. Remaining solution should be discarded

Oral rehydration solution is given in two stages:
- Phase Rehydration
This is to improve water and electrolyte imbalances that exist. Total solution
oral rehydration depends on the child's weight. One hundred milliliters of oral rehydration solution
recommended for every kilogram of body weight in the first four hours. Assess
rehydration progress every hour. Give oral rehydration solution and if a child is thirsty or
adequate rehydration has not been achieved.
It is important to look for signs of over-hydration. One simple way that can be
try is to see the child's eyelids. Swollen eyelids indicate
over-hydration. Oral rehydration solution should be stopped immediately after eyelid
looks swollen. Give other fluids until the swelling of the eyelids
- Maintenance Phase
This is to replace fluids lost during diarrhea continues. After the children get
enough fluids, give oral rehydration solution every time out dilute human waste money
to prevent dehydration. 50-10 ml should be given oral rehydration solution every time out
dispose of human waste liquid for children under two years old and 200-100 ml
for children aged between 2-10 years. Children above 10 years should be given a solution
oral rehydration as much as they want.
During the maintenance phase, which continues to receive bati rehydration therapy ebih from
four to six hours should be given breast milk alternately with a solution
oral rehydration.
If children are not fed, should be given 100-200 ml of water before giving more
a lot of oral rehydration solution. Children over the age of 4-6 months should be given a small portion
food every 3-4 hours.

Saturday, March 13, 2010

How to Prevent Dehydration

Many people suffering from diarrhea does not become dehydrated and therefore do not require oral rehydration solution. However, it is important to drink plenty of fluids to replace fluids lost from diarrhea. Drink fluids available at home in sufficient quantities to prevent dehydration. Liquids are generally available at home and can be given to children with diarrhea include water soup or cereal that is cooked with plenty of water, tea is not concentrated, or buttermilk.
Breastfeeding should be continued for all infants with diarrhea. A child with diarrhea but not dehydrated should be given more fluids than usual and continue to be fed in small portions but frequently. Also, it is important to observe early signs of dehydration, in order to handle it as soon as possible.

Friday, March 12, 2010

The Role of Mother In Treatment Diarrhea

A mother plays a very important role in the treatment of diarrhea in a child. This is because they are usually responsible for feeding the child care fields. Also, a child is likely to be more willing to drink and eat when his mother fed him.
It is important for the mother to learn the following:
1. How to prepare and give oral rehydration solution
2. Various types of fluids available at home
3. Detection of early signs or worsening diarrhea and dehydration.

Need to consult a doctor immediately, if any:
- Blood in excrement
- Lots of liquid human waste
- Vomiting repeatedly
- Increased thirst
- Children refuse to drink or eat
- Fever
- Child limp, difficult to wake up, or unconscious

Thursday, March 11, 2010

Diarrhea Treatment Principles

There are three principles of treatment of diarrhea:
1. Replacement of fluids lost
- Fluids and electrolytes should be given for all types of diarrhea
- Oral rehydration solution (giving fluids by mouth) is the best fluid for
dealing with diarrhea
- If oral rehydration solution (e.g by ORS) are not available, some liquids
available at home bias is also used

2. Feeding:
- Eat as much as possible should be forwarded to all types of diarrhea
- The frequency and total volume of food must be improved after the treatment of diarrhea
to avoid malnutrition

3. Use of appropriate medications:
- Medicines to kill bacteria or parasites should be given only for
specific conditions have been identified as causes of diarrhea
- Drugs that reduce intestinal movements and therefore can control diarrhea
not recommended, because it is not useful. In certain cases, this drug
bias is also dangerous

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Complications of Diarrhea

Dehydration is the most common complications from diarrhea. Other complications sometimes arise include:
- Disturbances in the normal electrolyte balance in the body.
Electrolytes are chemical substances which, when melted or dissolved in water or other liquids
breaking into particles and capable of carrying electric current. Electrolyte concentration
different in blood, tissues, and fluids in the body's cells. Our bodies need
have the right amount of electrolytes to obtain energy. Some diseases
such as diarrhea can cause a lack of one or more electrolytes.

- Ileus Paralysis (Paralytic ileus)
It is a condition where there is a reduction or absence of bowel movements.
This condition can occur due to surgery, injury to the abdominal wall, kidney pain
severe, or other severe illnesses.

- Septicemia
It is a condition in which there apda infection throughout the body. This condition
usually following an infection in one part of the body, from which bacteria
go to various parts of the body via blood

- Complications of intravascular coagulation of blood as dissemination
If there is illness or injury of any kind, blood tends to form a mass of
semi-solid or blood clots in the blood vessels. Therefore, the body must
uses many chemicals to shape it. To combat the effects of
clotting, the body produces large amounts of anti-clotting chemicals.
As a result, blood does not clot. If the blood does not clot, it can even
cause bleeding. Septicemia, serious injury, bleeding, and many diseases
others can cause severe intravascular coagulation terdiseminasi or scattered.

Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Symptoms of Dehydration

Here are the symptoms of mild dehydration and severe dehydration.
Mild dehydration:
- Increased thirst
- Anxiety
- Reduced skin elasticity
- Mouth and tongue dry
- Dry eyes, in the absence of tears
- Sunken eyes

Severe dehydration:
- Hands and feet are cold and damp
- Children who look weak, unaware, or limp
- Inability to drink
- Loss of skin elasticity are fully
- Lack of tears
- Layer on lenders who very dry mouth
- Reducing the volume of urine is bad or lack of urine.

Monday, March 8, 2010

Dehydration And How Detected in Children

Dehydration is the excessive loss of body fluids. Dehydration usually caused by diarrhea or vomiting. In particular, dehydration is a serious condition in children because of the long colon and bowel wall surface greater in children. The more the amount of area that must be passed with fluid, the greater the loss of fluid from the body. This is why a child can lose as much fluid from adults in a single episode of diarrhea. Because the total weight smaller children, the loss of fluid is much more dangerous to children.
Dehydration causes loss of fluids and electrolytes, like sodium, chloride, potassium, and others, from within body.

Dehydration occurs when a child with diarrhea or vomiting and loss of about 6-9% of total body weight. Severe dehydration occurs when more than 10% of total weight lost child.
Symptoms of dehydration can be observed. To detect the occurrence of dehydration, your doctor will ask you some questions like:
- Frequency of bowel movement, volume and density
- Frequency vomiting, if any, and the volume and severity
- Thirst, if a child is old enough to ask for a drink
- The volume of urination since the start of diarrhea
In addition, your doctor will look for general appearance, such as sunken eyes, dryness of the mouth and tongue, and breathing rate and type of breath.
The doctor will examine the skin elasticity. Normal elasticity will be lost when dehydration occurs. He also will measure the pulse, for detecting whether the beats very fast or slow, and see fontanels in infants who are still very small. Fontanels is a soft area in the fontanel babies, namely regions that have not been meeting the skull with a perfect blend.

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Relationship Between Diarrhea and Malnutrition

1. Malnutrition increase the risk and severity of diarrhea due to:
- Diarrhea lasted longer in children with malnutrition
- Dehydration and weight loss is more common in children who lack
- Risk of death from dehydration is 15-20 times greater in children who
malnutrition than in healthy children

2. Diarrhea can cause or exacerbate a mild form of malnutrition because:
- Diarrhea leads to poor absorption of food in the intestines
- Diarrhea often causes decreased appetite
- Many women do not provide enough food to children during diarrhea because
belief that increased food intake will aggravate diarrhea.

Saturday, March 6, 2010

Is Diarrhea is a Serious Disease

Diarrhea can be a serious illness in children if treatment is timely and appropriate is not provided. This is one of the biggest health problems in developing countries like India and Indonesia. Diarrhea is also a major cause of death and malnutrition on small children.
Dehydration and malnutrition is the greatest impact of diarrhea. Both can cause death within a short time if not treated properly. If treatment is correct and timely manner is not given, your child may lose 10% -15% body weight at each episode of diarrhea. Losing weight can cause malnutrition or malnutrition. Malnutrition itself can increase a person's risk of having more episodes of diarrhea. Therefore, diarrhea and malnutrition can become an environmental hazard. Approximately 25% of children with diarrhea malnutrition risk. Malnutrition has several long-term negative impact on child health.
Approximately 30% of deaths in children under five in developing countries caused by diarrhea. Of all, approximately 25% of deaths caused by persistent diarrhea and 15% by dysentery.

Friday, March 5, 2010

Germs That Can Cause Diarrhea

Diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Parasites are living beings who live from or in any other living creature. They get the nutrients and other benefits to having a devastating effect on living beings into their host. Some types of worms can live as parasites in our intestines and cause symptoms such as diarrhea.

Virus that usually causes diarrhea include:
- Rotavirus: This is the main cause in the first two years of age. This is the most important cause of severe life-threatening diarrhea in young children.
- Norwalk Virus: This virus causes vomiting and diarrhea in children is greater.

The bacteria that usually causes diarrhea include:
- E. coli: This is an important cause of acute watery diarrhea in adults and children. The bacteria are usually spread through contaminated food and water
- Vibrio cholerae: This bacterium causes cholera. Diarrhea can be severe, causing a lack of fluids or dehydration within a few hours, if the fluid and salts lost are not replaced immediately.
- Campylobacter jejuni: The bacteria are usually the cause of diarrhea in infants. Campylobacter jejuni was also infects animals, mainly chickens and dogs. The bacteria are spread through contact with feces of infected humans or consumption of food, milk, or contaminated water. Approximately 66% of infants infected with Campylobacter jejuni experiencing watery diarrhea while others have dysentery.
- Shigella: This is the most common cause of diarrhea. This bacterium also causes watery diarrhea. Shigella often spread through transmission from person to person
- Salmonella: Most infections caused by salmonella caused by consumption of contaminated animal products. This bacterium usually causes watery diarrhea, but also can cause dysentery.
Other bacteria that can cause diarrhea include Staphylococcus, Bacillus and other cireus.

Parasite that usually causes diarrhea include:
- Cryptosporidium: Parasites usually cause disease in infants and people who bad his body natural defense mechanism. Children who were older and adults normally have asymptomatic infestation. That means, the parasites do not cause any symptoms.
- Entamoeba histolytica: This parasite causes amebiasis, and usually in children and larger adults. This infestation is usually detected by human waste in the laboratory examination. This parasite causes dysentery.
- Giardia lamblia: This parasite causes giardiasis in children.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

Factors That Increase Risk Of Diarrhea

Environmental factors:
- Inadequate water availability
- Water contaminated with human feces
- Personal hygiene bad. For example not washing hands after bowel movement and when to serve food
- Cleaning house bad. For example not throw human feces in the toilet child
- Method of preparation and storage of food is not hygienic. For example cooked foods without washing first, or do not cover the food has been cooked. Food stored at room temperature is more easily contaminated. Also, bacteria can grow rapidly in foods stored at room temperature for several hours

Weaning bad actions:
- Granting an exclusive milk stopped before the baby 4-6 months old and started giving milk through the bottle
- Stop feeding before a child aged one year, reduced risk of some types of diarrhea in babies who are breastfed at least until the age of one year.

Individual factors:
- Poor nutrition. Frequency, duration, and severity of diarrhea more higher in children who lack nutrition. The They are also more at risk for experiencing complications of diarrhea.
- Poor or lack of body's natural defense mechanisms. For example, diarrhea is more common in children, both those who had experienced measles or measles until a month before or on medication that reduces the body's natural defense mechanisms.
- Production of reduced gastric acid
- Movement in the intestines is reduced, affecting the normal flow of food.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Cholera and How Diarrhea Spreads

Cholera is a kind of acute watery diarrhea. Cholera attacked it as an epidemic or as separate cases. Most cases of cholera are usually mild and therefore separate it difficult to distinguish from other types of acute diarrhea. The epidemic is a condition in which a large number of people affected by health problems that spread quickly at the same time. It is important to detect cholera quickly as possible in order to immediately start treatment. Treatment of delayed or inadequate can lead to severe complications such as dehydration (lack of fluids) and a decrease in blood pressure due to the reduced number or blood volume.
Cholera is usually suspected when a person older than five years of severe dehydration caused by acute watery diarrhea caused by cholera sector in a region. Vomiting is also common in cases of cholera.

Diarrhea is more common in some seasons. Variational seasons differ from one region to another. For example, in temperate, diarrhea caused by bacteria is more common in the warm season, while the diarrhea caused by viral infections are more common in winter. In the tropics, diarrhea caused by viral infections tend to occur throughout the year, but more common during the dry season and cool. Diarrhea caused by bacterial infection is more common in the warm rainy season in tropical regions.

Germs that cause diarrhea usually by faecal oral spread. This means that from someone who is infected human feces to the mouth of the germs that are not infected. Through the faecal oral transmission include:
- Consumption of contaminated food or drink including water
- Direct contact from one person to another
- Direct contact with infected human feces

Diarrhea can spread through unhygienic actions, such as preparing food with unwashed hands after cleaning the waste water or human excrement of a child, or allowing a child to play in areas where there is contaminated by human feces

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

About Diarrhea and Diarrhea Type

Diarrhea was defined as a condition in which there is a change in the density and character of human waste and human excrement expelled three times or more per day. The following conditions are not called diarrhea if:
- Removing the soft dough-like human faeces in infants fed on breast milk
- Removing the human feces during or immediately after feeding because of gastro colic reflex, a series of movements from the stomach into the large bowel after eating certain foods
- Removing the human waste that semi hard as many as three to six times the infant weight gain enough.

There are three main types of diarrhea:
- Acute watery diarrhea
- Dysentery
- Persistent diarrhea

Acute watery diarrhea has three main features are:
- The symptoms began suddenly
- Manure and liquid dilute human
- Recovery usually occurs within 3-7 days. Sometimes the symptoms lasted until the 14th day of bias.
More than 75% of people affected by acute watery diarrhea, diarrhea

Dysentery has two main characteristics:
- The presence of blood in human feces
- May be accompanied by abdominal cramps, loss of appetite and rapid weight loss.
Approximately 10-15% of children under five years of dysentery.

Permanent or persistent diarrhea that has three main features:
- Expenditures of human waste is accompanied dilute blood
- Symptoms last more than 14 days
- There is a weight-loss

Chronic diarrhea is a term used for diarrhea is repeated or prolonged. This is not caused by any infection, but often due to indigestion. Long-term diarrhea that is caused by an infection called persistent diarrhea.

Monday, March 1, 2010

Introduction of Diarrhea

Diarrhea is one of the health problems that affect many people. This disturbance is a symptom and not disease. There are several possible causes of diarrhea, but the most common is infection.
Diarrhea is a major cause of illness and death in children in developing countries, like India and Indonesia. Diarrhea is also an important cause of malnutrition. This is because children like to eat less in a period of diarrhea. Diarrhea can also adversely affect the digestion of food. As a result the body can not utilize food effectively.
Our body needs extra nutrients when suffering from any infection to fight germs that cause illness. Inadequate food and digestion that are not good together affect adversely the nutritional status of a child. Diarrhea and its complications can be prevented in ways that are simple and effective.