Saturday, December 25, 2010

Treatment Of Pneumonia

Treatment consists of antibiotics and supportive treatment. Giving antibiotics should be based on microorganisms and their susceptibility test results.

For several reasons, namely:
- severe disease can be life-threatening
- pathogenic bacteria that succeed in isolation is not necessarily as a cause of pneumonia
- The result of culturing the bacteria need time, administration of antibiotics done empirically.

Treatment of patients with pneumonia depends on the severity of symptoms and type of cause of pneumonia itself.
1. Pneumonia caused by bacteria will be given antibiotic treatment. Treatment should be really really complete until no longer any symptoms or the results of X-ray and sputum no longer shows the existence of bacterial pneumonia, otherwise it will return someday suffered pneumonia.

2. Pneumonia caused by a virus will be given treatment similar to flu patients, but more emphasis to the provision of adequate rest and plenty fluid intake and good nutrition to help restore the immune system.

3. Pneumonia caused by fungus will get with the provision of anti-fungal treatment.

Besides giving other drugs to help reduce pain, fever and headache. Provision of anti-(suppressor) cough at the recommended low dose just enough to make the patient can rest sleep, because coughing will also help the cleaning process secresi mucossa (ripple / phlegm) in lung.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Prevention Of Pneumonia

For people who are susceptible to pneumonia, breathing exercises and therapy to get rid of phlegm, can help prevent pneumonia.
Vaccination can help prevent certain types of pneumonia in children and adults who are at high risk:
- Pneumococcal vaccine (to prevent pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae)
- Flu vaccine
- Hib vaccine (to prevent pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenzae type b).

Prevention of Pneumonia in children:
In order not to develop into pneumonia, keep the child with a cough and pilik get enough to eat and drink a lot, keep the room smoke-free residence.
If the infant or child's breathing seemed normal that is not fast and not crowded, children simply treated at home. If a child's fever, can be given febrifuge. Clean regularly nostril before bedtime to keep the child breathe easier, the baby could sleep in the prone position.

So that children do not experience a cold or pneumonia, cough, keep the child from an infected person coughs, keep the child had good nutrition, give milk to babies or children aged 0-2 years, eating a diet containing vitamin A from yellow fruits and vegetables, provide immunizations in children according to time, keep the room in which to live children have clean air and adequate ventilation.

Prevention of Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Pneumococcal vaccine is the only way to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia obtain. The vaccines available for children and adults.
Vaccines and immunization-immunization of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that you get the pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine if you are in any groups of the following:
- You are aged 65 or older cope
- You have a long-term health problems such as serious heart disease, sickle cell disease, alcoholism, lung disease (excluding asthma), diabetes, or liver cirrhosis
- Your resistance to infection decreases caused by:
HIV infection or AIDS
- Lymphoma, leukemia, or other cancers
- Treatment of cancer with x-rays or drugs
- Treatment with medications long-term steroid
- Transplantation of bone marrow or organ
- Failed to marginal or kidney syndrome
- Damaged spleen or no spleen

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Diagnosis of Pneumonia

Diagnosis of Pneumonia can be done through:

Clinical Overview
The symptoms of pneumonia similar for all types of pneumonia. The symptoms include:
- Fever and chills due to inflammatory processes
- A cough that is often productive and purulent
- Sputum rust-colored red or green with a distinctive odor
- Fatigue due to inflammatory reactions and hypoxia if the infection is serious.
The clinical picture is usually preceded by infection of acute upper respiratory tract for several days, followed by fever, chills, body temperature sometimes exceeds 400C, sore throat, sore muscles and joints. Also accompanied by cough, with purulent sputum mukoid or, sometimes bloody.
On physical examination, chest pain seen bagiam the time left to breathe with bronchial breath sounds are sometimes weakened. Ronkhi obtained fine, which later became ronkhi wet rough on the stage of resolution.

Radiological picture
Radiological picture in the photo thorax on pneumonia, among others:
- Perselubungan homogeneous or inhomogen accordance with a lung lobe or segment anantomis.
- The border firm, though at first less clear.
- Lung volume did not change, unlike lung atelectasis where shrinking. - No visible deviation of the trachea / septum / fissure / as in atelectasis.
- Silhouette sign (+): useful for determining location of pulmonary lesions; limit cardiac lesions with missing, mean lesion is adjacent to the heart or in the right lobe medius.
- Often due to complications of pleural effusions.
- When the occurrence of the inferior lobe, the sinus phrenicocostalis most recently exposed.
- At the beginning is often still visible vascular.
- In the resolution often seem Water Bronchogram Signing.

Diagnosis of pneumonia Diagnosis based on medical history, physical examination and investigation. Etiologik diagnosis, based on examination mikrobiologik and / or serologic as a basis for optimal therapy. But the discovery of bacteria that cause is not always easy therefore require adequate laboratory support, and if the inspection can be done even mikrobiologik not always causing germs can be found. Therefore the WHO to develop guidelines for clinical diagnosis and management of pneumonia in children. The goal is to simplify the diagnostic criteria into a small number of physical signs can be detected directly, create a system of classification of disease and determine the basis of antibiotic usage.

The diagnosis of pneumonia can be seen from the symptoms that occur in animals and by performing a physical examination. Information from chest examination with X-ray, blood tests, sputum culture also can help. Diagnosis of pneumonia is difficult if the animal suffered from other diseases. Sometimes a CT scan or other tests may be needed to distinguish pneumonia from other diseases.

Ikubasi period between 20-30 days, followed by symptoms of anorexia, decreased temperature, fever, decreased blood pressure, heart rate increased, decreased oxygen saturation, body weakness, weight decreased, shortness of breath, dry cough, and cyanosis. Mushrooms can be found from animals suffering from sputum or lung tissue is viewed with Giemza staining under a microscope. Roentgen examination and inspection by PCR will strengthen the determination of this diagnosis.

Friday, December 10, 2010

Symptoms of Pneumonia

Pneumonia have symptoms that vary, not the typical show pneumonia.Gejala infection associated with pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. While the signs of suffering from pneumonia can be known after undergoing X-ray examination (Rongent) and sputum examination.

The symptoms can be divided into 2:
- General symptoms: fever, cough, runny nose, hoarseness, sore throat. Then, the higher the heat, the more severe cough, rapid breathing, rib muscle tension, shortness of breath and patients become bluish (cyanosis).
- Respiratory symptoms: headache, abdominal pain and vomiting (in children over 5 years)

Symptoms of Pneumonia in infants and children
In infants who breathe with the ventilator: the amount of mucus increases, the body temperature goes up - down. In infants (aged under 1 year) sign - a sign of pneumonia are not specific, not always found fever and cough. Pneumonia is an acute infectious process of the lung tissue (alveoli). The occurrence of pneumonia in children is often in conjunction with the process of acute infection in the bronchi (bronchopneumonia). Symptoms of this disease in the form of rapid breathing and shortness of breath, because suddenly inflamed lung. Limit fast breathing is a respiratory frequency of 50 times per minute or more in children aged 2 months to less than 1 year, and 40 times per minute or more in children aged 1 year to less than 5 years. In children under the age of 2 months, no known diagnosis of pneumonia.
Serious pneumonia characterized by coughing or breathing difficulty accompanied, shortness of breath or withdrawal of the lower chest wall into the (severe chest indrawing) in children aged 2 months to less than 5 years. In this age group is also known Pneumonia is very serious, with symptoms of cough, difficulty breathing accompanied by symptoms of central cyanosis and can not drink. As for children under 2 months, severe pneumonia is characterized by respiratory frequency of 60 times per minute or more or (also accompanied by) a strong drawdown in the lower chest wall inward.

Sunday, December 5, 2010

Cause Of Pneumonia

There are several causes of pneumonia. On estimate there are approximately 30 causes include pneumonia can be caused by infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasite (parasite). Pneumonia can also be caused by pain of chemicals or physical injury to the lungs, or as a result of other diseases, such as lung cancer or excessive alcohol drinking.
The most common cause is bacteria, viruses, fungi, micoplasma, protozoa, rickets and foreign objects. Generally travel pneumonia caused by injury or infection in the lower respiratory tract that causes inflammation. Bacteria can also be found in healthy human throat. If the body's defense is weak after years of smoking and drinking alcohol or recovering from other illnesses, so the lungs become vulnerable to germs everyday.
Microorganism infection or foreign objects that enter the lungs and attacking inflamation air pockets. Since inflammatory fluid into the alveoli lung cavity, also called consolidation. When there is infection quickly spreads through the bloodstream throughout the body. Pneumonia may also occur due to aspiration of gastric contents, water or other irritation. High-risk factors affected by pneumonia were upper respiratory tract infection, old age, alcoholism, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and chronic disease chronic.
Blood tests can often help to determine what causes pneumonia (whether bacterial or viral). X-ray photograph with your child on the chest to confirm the diagnosis. If your child is suffering from pneumonia, the results of x-ray photograph will show the existence of fluid (consolidation) in the lungs.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Introduction Of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs where the pulmonary alveoli (alveoli) responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere become inflamed and filled with fluid. Pneumonia can be caused by several causes, including infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Pneumonia can also be caused by pain of chemicals or physical injury to the lungs, or as a result of other diseases, such as lung cancer or excessive alcohol drinking.

Symptoms associated with pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnostic tools including X-rays. Treatment depends on the cause pneumonia, inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria treated with antibiotics.

Pneumonia is a common disease, which occurs in all age groups, and is the top ranked causes of death among the elderly and people with chronic illness. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia can be obtained. Individual prognosis depends on the type of pneumonia, appropriate treatment, complications, and health.

One case of pneumonia that have a high mortality rate at present is a case of pneumonia caused by bird flu.

Thursday, November 25, 2010

Treatment of Heart Disease With Honey

Honey reduces the risk of heart disease, based on preliminary study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food "(2004, 1:100-7). Some scientific studies suggest the consumption of honey can reduce blood pressure causing heart disease.

Honey for some people to cause obesity, high LDL and high blood pressure resulting in heart disease. Why? Because honey has a sweet taste from sucrose, glucose and fructose. We know that consuming excess sucrose is believed to increase the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and high blood pressure. Sucrose also reduces beneficial HDL and increase triglyceride levels. Fructose have the same effect with sucrose.

Disinalah wonders of bee honey, sugar-gulaan such as sucrose, glucose and fructose contained in the honey actually healthful. Bees produce pure honey with flowers to suck nectar rich in sugar but bee-gulaan the processing of sugar-gulaan it first in the belly of a bee. After the nectar is processed in the honey bee's body, then remove honey bees from inside his stomach. So sugar-gulaan contained in honey is processed in the stomach first, so honey bees can be absorbed directly into our blood. Based on scientific research, honey can be absorbed into the blood about 10 minutes. This can be proved if we are tired after exercise then our bodies pure honey drink quickly feel refreshed.

Besides honey contains sugar-gulaan also contain many potentially beneficial enzymes such as amino acids, honey contains bee pollen, propolis, beeswax and nutrients derived from plants and bee body itself.

Some of the chemicals in the blood can be used to monitor the level of risk of heart disease. Several years earlier, and LDL cholesterol levels have been used to monitor the level of heart disease and recently homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been added as a cause / factor for heart disease. People with high homocysteine levels have high levels of heart disease, cancer and some other dangerous disease.

Homocysteine levels can be lowered by vitamin B6, B12 and folic acid. High CRP levels are also able to predict heart disease. CRP level increase caused by smoking, high blood pressure, obesity and chronic gum disease.

So eating sucrose, glucose and fructose may increase the risk of heart disease, this study recommends eating honey is not only safe but in fact actually heart healthy.

Saturday, November 20, 2010

Prevention of Heart Disease with a Healthy Lifestyle

Prevention efforts to avoid heart disease begins with improving lifestyle and controlling risk factors, thereby reducing the chances of the disease.

For prevention of heart disease, avoid obesity and high cholesterol. Start by eating more vegetables, fruits, grains, other fibrous foods and fish. Reduce meat, snacks (snacks), and high-calorie foods and many contain other saturated fats. Foods that contain lots of cholesterol deposited in artery walls and cause atherosclerosis that trigger heart disease and stroke.

Quitting smoking is the target to be achieved, also avoiding cigarette smoke from the environment. Smoking causes reduced blood vessel elasticity, thereby increasing the hardening of the arteries, and increases blood clotting factors that trigger heart disease. Smoking has a chance of coronary heart disease affected approximately two times higher than non-smokers.

Reduce drinking alcohol. The more alcohol consumption, the possibility of hemorrhagic stroke, especially of the higher. Alcohol can raise blood pressure, weakened heart, thicken the blood and cause arterial spasm.

Do Exercise / physical activity. Exercise can help reduce body weight, controlling cholesterol, and lowering blood pressure is another risk factor for heart exposed.

Control high blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Hypertension is a major factor of coronary heart disease. Diabetes also increases the risk of stroke from 1.5 to 4 times as much, especially if uncontrolled blood sugar.

Avoid using illegal drugs such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, because these drugs drugs may increase the risk of stroke 7-fold compared with non-drug users.

Monday, November 15, 2010

Diagnosis of Heart Disease

Based on perceived symptoms, a doctor can make a rational estimate of whether the symptoms suggest a heart attack or not. His suspicion may be reinforced by the appearance of the patient, the level of blood pressure and heartbeat sounds. Your doctor will probably send it to the ECG examination and blood test, but when still feel the pain, the doctor will probably give an injection penghilangrasa pain before the examination. It's scary because the pain can be brought to the brink of a deeper, which can cause cardiac symptoms. The pain can also cause long-term psychological impact. The first ECG may not show signs of heart attack and possibly the examination should be repeated. Sometimes a second test still shows no change, and during this case, the diagnosis will rely on blood tests. The heart, like all other body cells, contain special chemicals called enzymes. When heart cells are damaged, enzymes are released together with circulating blood flow. After a heart attack, levels of this enzyme in part direct to rise, but subsequently these enzymes quickly break down and therefore no longer detectable after a day or two days, there is a new enzyme that is released several hours or several days later to stay in the blood for several days or even a few weeks

The diagnosis of coronary heart disease by:
- Anamnesis
- Physical Examination
- Electrocardiography (ECG)
- Laboratory
- Chest X-rays
- Echocardiography
- Treadmill Test
- Coronary Angiography

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Symptoms of Heart Disease

Heart disease can affect anyone. Young age are also vulnerable to the disease this one. The reason is the pattern of human life now is full of fragility. Whereas the heart is the most important organ for sure someone can live. The heart is already having symptoms of illness it is necessary to be careful more. If you are not friendly with some symptoms that might be when found not know if it turns out it is a symptom of heart disease, then consider the following exposure.

The symptoms below are not always, but most. If all you feel, it needs to be checked because it is a symptom of heart disease.

Here are the symptoms of heart disease, not always, but most. Symptoms are as follows.
- Pain
As long as we do activities, will feel the pain in some parts of the body. Muscles are not supplies blood as needed, oxygen and metabolic processes makes excessive cramps. Chest pain, tightness, because the heart muscle not getting enough blood intake. Pain that is felt would happen almost every day.
- Shortness of Breath
The entry of fluid into the lung cavity that disrupts the flow of air in the lungs. Patients will experience shortness of breath. Patients feel shortness of breath during activity, is if people with shortness of breath at rest (silent) means the category of advanced heart disease. Shortness of breath is often experienced in lying position. Because the fluid that accumulated in the lungs to flow to the heart.
- Fatigue or exhaustion
Weakened heart muscle that causes the blood pumping less than perfect. Patients often feel weak and tired despite not doing anything. To avoid weakening of heart function, we should regularly exercise and do a lot of movement that would lead to more active work of the heart.
- Heart palpitations (Palpitations)
Heart pounding signs of heart disease is the same type of racing with another symptom is when someone fatigue, shortness of breath and pain in his body.
- Dizziness and Fainting
Abnormal blood pumping so that the revenue net of blood to be disturbed, a person may feel dizzy due to lack of blood. Heart rate weakened resulting in the patient unconscious. Persistent pain, pain in the spine, and brain disorders due to abnormalities in blood supply makes the dizziness and fainting.

Friday, November 5, 2010

Cause Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease was initially caused by the accumulation of fat in the blood vessel walls in the heart (coronary arteries), and this is gradually followed by various processes such as hoarding network belt, blood clots, etc.., All of which will be narrowed or clogged blood vessels them. This will lead to the heart muscle in those areas lacking blood flow and can cause a variety of serious consequences, from angina pectoris (chest pain) to heart infarction, which in community known as heart attack that can cause sudden death.

Some of the most important risk factor for coronary heart disease:
- Total and LDL Cholesterol Levels High
- Low HDL Cholesterol Levels
- High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
- Smoking
The risk of heart disease from smoking is equivalent to 100 pounds overweight - so it is not possible to equate the two.
- Diabetes Mellitus
Most people with diabetes die not because of increased blood sugar levels, but because the condition of their heart complications.
- Obesity
Central obesity (belly fat) is a form of obesity. Although all obese people tend to have an increased risk of heart disease, people with obesity was even more so.
- History of heart disease in the family lineage
History of heart attack within the family is often a result of abnormal cholesterol profiles.
- Unhealthy Lifestyle / Lack of exercise
Bad lifestyle is one of the root causes of heart disease - and replace them with physical activity is one of the most radical step that can be taken.
- Stress
Many studies have shown that, when facing a tense situation, there may be life-threatening heart arithmias.
- Entering the age of 45 years for men.
It is important for men to realize their vulnerability and take positive action to prevent future heart disease.
- For women, entered the age of 55 years or premature menopause (as a result of the operation).
Women began following the men in terms of risk of heart disease after menopause.

When you carry one or more risk factors mentioned above, you are encouraged periodically check your heart health to an expert. The existence of two or more risk factors would be multiplied times the total increase risk of coronary heart disease.

Monday, November 1, 2010

Introduction of Heart Disease

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition where cardiac valve damaged by rheumatic fever.
Congenital heart disease is a type of defect or abnormality in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occur before birth. This defect occurs when the fetus develops in the womb and affects 80-10 of every 1,000 children. Congenital heart defects may produce symptoms at birth, during childhood, and sometimes not until adulthood. Approximately 500,000 people in the U.S. adult congenital heart disease.

Heart attack is the cessation of blood flow, even if only for a moment, that led to the heart, and causes some heart cells to die.
Heart disease is the number one cause of death in adults in the United States. Each year, in the United States:
1.5 million people suffered heart attacks.
478,000 people die from coronary heart disease.
407 000 people experience the transition operation.
300,000 people undergo angioplasty.
Heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease is a deadly disease. Worldwide, the number of people with this disease continues to grow. The three categories of disease is not out of an unhealthy lifestyle that a lot done in line with the changing pattern of life.
These factors trigger a heart attack is smoking, eating foods high cholesterol, lack of movement, supine exercise, stress, and less rest.

Heart attack is a condition when the damage suffered by the heart muscle (myocardium) due to very sudden decrease in blood supply to the heart muscle. Reduced blood supply to the heart suddenly can occur when one of the coronary artery blockage was for some time, either due to spasm - coronary tighten artery - or due to blood clots - thrombus. Sections of heart muscle that is usually supplied by a pulse which block stop functioning properly immediately after splasme subsides by itself, the symptoms disappeared completely and heart muscle function completely normally again. This is often called crescendo angina or coronary insufficiency. Conversely, if the blood supply to the heart stops altogether, the cells in question experienced a permanent change in just a few hours only and referred to the heart muscle is severely degraded or permanently damaged. Muscles of the dead is called infarction.

Saturday, October 23, 2010

Stroke Management

In caring for stroke patients, there are a few things to note in relation to the circumstances experienced by patients. All this is done for convenience and create conditions so that patients recover faster. Things that need to do:
- Position the body in a state lying on his side (lateral decubitus)
- Avoid giving food or drink orally
- Avoid permanent catheter placement.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Treatment of Acute Stroke Patients

Acute-phase treatment program conducted with the initial step of acute stroke treatment. First focus on general medical resuscitation ABC.

A. Water Way
The first action in dealing with acute stroke patients is to assess the respiratory system. Examination of the water-way includes the area of the mouth, such as food scraps, dentures or foreign objects blocking the water way sufferers.

Way the water issue generally occurs in patients with bleeding strokes. For patients with ischemic stroke, water-way is usually stabilkecuali on brain stem infarction or recurrent seizures. To avoid blockage of water on the way stroke patients are not aware, the patient should be in the lateral decubitus position, mild hyperextension neck, and shoulders lifted, aspirated secretions, endotracheal testing. If intubation required more than 3 days, the tracheostomy may be considered.

B. Breathing
All stroke patients are given supplemental oxygen 1-2 liters per minute through the nose until there is blood gas analysis. Then adjusted with a target partial Pa O2> 80-100 mmHg. Oxygen delivery in patients with stroke is generally beneficial, because the brain requires a lot to carry oxygen metabolism. Levels of carbon dioxide Pa CO2 = 30-35 mmHg.

C. Circulation
After the action of water-way and oxygenation, then the next important also is to improve circulation and brain perfusion adequately in a way keep cardiac output and blood pressure. Then checked state of circulation such as blood pressure and pulse.

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Examination Stroke

In treating stroke patients, need to be considered so that the treatment process or tahapam right on target:
- The acute phase: usually lasts between 4-7 days. Target patient survived
- Phase of recovery: after the acute phase had passed, the next is pemulihanyang phase lasts about 2-4 weeks. Target patient bekajar disturbed motor skills and learn new adjustments to compensate for limitations.
- Rehabilitation: target to continue the recovery process to achieve improved physical ability, mental, social and speaking skills.
- Phase Everyday life: after the acute phase is exceeded, then the preventive therapy to avoid recurrence of acute stroke.

Hospital Handling
Handling of hyperacute phase of stroke patients should be performed in a hospital. Actions taken at the hospital depends on the type and weight experienced a stroke. Patients may be encouraged to stay to find out the cause of the stroke. Although patients must stay in the hospital, does not mean a stroke will bring harm or disability. Stroke is not always predictable, and may take several days to find out clearly against the possibility further. Hospital doctors will take some action to ensure that the diagnosis was a stroke, not other diseases whose symptoms are similar to stroke such as brain tumors, epilepsy, migraine. The doctor will perform several checks:
- CT-scan (computerised tomography scanning)
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- ECG / EKG (electrocardiograph)
- EEG (electroencephalogram)
- Blood tests
- Angiogram or arteriogram
- Roentgen rays

State of the patient as a whole should also be considered include hemoglobin, electrolytes, albumin, cleanliness of the respiratory tract and urinary tract.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Stroke Diagnosis

The diagnosis is usually based on the course of the disease and results of physical examination. Physical examination can help determine the location of brain damage. Inspection procedures to be performed should not much time for too long, for the sake of minimizing the loss of time between the onset of disease and the start of therapy.

Examination Support
CT-scan should be performed on sema patients with suspected acute stroke. CT-scan without contrast to distinguish ischemic stroke, hemorrhage and stroke. At the stroke of bleeding, lesions form hiperdens. While in ischemic stroke, lesions form hipodens or normal. It should be noted that about 5% of stroke subarachnoid hemorrhage CT-scan can be normal, so we need punksi lumbar examination. Cerebrospinal fluid in subarachnoid hemorrhage of blood red.

Differential Diagnosis
Some diseases that need to be considered because it has symptoms similar to acute stroke:
- Trauma to the head or neck
- Meningnitis / encephalitis (brain infection)
- Hypertensive encephalopathy / brain disorders due to hypertension
- Intracranial mass: tumor, hematoma
- The attack seizures with a temporary nerve disorder
- Migraine with temporary neurological disorders
- Metabolic Disorders: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, heart post-ischemia, toxic poisoning, endocrine disorders / myxedema, uremia
- Psychiatric Disorders
- Shock accompanied by hypoperfusion of the central nervous

Friday, October 15, 2010

Advanced Stroke Symptoms

Here are the symptoms of a stroke that is more detailed:
- The offensive focal neurological deficits, weakness or paralysis of the arm, or one side of the body.
- Loss of taste or abnormal sensations in the arm or one side of the body. Side numbness, cramp, was on fire.
- Mouth, tongue can not be straight.
- Impaired swallowing, difficulty swallowing, hard to drink.
- Talk is not clear, difficult to speak, the spoken word is not as you wish, nasal, aphasia. Talk is not smooth, just a few words were spoken.
- It's hard to think or say the right words.
- Not understanding the speech of others.
- Not able to read, write and do not understand the writing.
- Unable to count, decreased intelligence.
- Not able to recognize parts of the body.
- Loss of bladder control.
- It's hard to walk.
- Forgetful (dementia)
- Vertigo
- Start of rapid disease, sudden
- Loss of vision, vision be disturbed, dark vision
Eyelids open hard-
- Hearing loss or hearing loss
- Become more sensitive
- Always wanted to sleep
- Loss of balance, body movements are not well coordinated
- Disturbance of consciousness, fainting

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Stroke Symptoms

The following disorder may be a symptom of someone affected by stroke:
- Facial Drop
Normal: both sides of the face moved symmetrically
Abnormal: one side of the front left
- Speech and language disorders
Normal: to pronounce sentence correctly and clearly
Abnormal: difficulty speaking, using the wrong word
- Arm Drift
Normal: both arms to move simultaneously and parallel
Abnormal: One arm moves down / not aligned
- Eye movement disorders and impaired coordination

Symptoms of mild stroke
When a stroke occurs, should be immediately taken to the hospital. When the doctor checked and found no symptoms of stroke, the patient is exposed to the possibility of temporary ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. Patients will recover after 24 hours after the stroke occurred. To prevent repeat strokes, then the patient should lead a healthy lifestyle and consume a drug that can destroy the blockage or plaque in arteries.

Early Stroke Symptoms
Initial attack of stroke is usually a disturbance of consciousness. Disturbance of consciousness can be a feeling of wanting to sleep, confusion, difficulty remembering, blurred vision and so forth. In the next few hours of consciousness disturbance will continue, reduce muscle strength and coordination, in the form of difficulty concentrating on reading or hearing. Alternatively, the patient not easy to talk and do activities such as standing, walking and holding something. Another disturbance in the form of difficulty breathing. Other early symptoms include loss of muscle force as limp fingers, legs become stiff and lose coordination of movement. If the symptoms are more severe then the patient should be taken to the hospital.

Most cases of stroke occur suddenly, very quickly and cause brain damage within minutes. Stroke can get worse within a few hours or several days due to increased area of dead brain tissue. The development of the disease are usually interspersed with stable periods, where the expansion of brain tissue dies and stops while going improvement. Symptoms of acute stroke patients depending on the affected brain regions.

Broadly speaking, the brain consists of 3 parts:
1. Cerebrum: functions associated with higher intellectual function, speech function, the integration of sensory information and control of fine movements
2. Small brain: functions to manage the coordination of movement and balance the body.
3. Brain stem: controls the basic functions of the organs, such as eye movements, balance, awareness, breathing and heart function.

Right-brain part associated with the introduction of space, body, ability to draw, art and buildings. While the left brain function on speech, numeracy and writing.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Obstruction of blood supply to the brain can be caused by arteries that supply blood to the brain is broken by certain causes. For example, blood pressure suddenly high. Increased blood pressure suddenly height can be caused by hypertension, psychological stress, head trauma or increased pressure such as coughing loudly and others. The blood vessels that rupture is usually due to artery-shaped thin-walled balloon, called aneurysms or atherosclerotic arterial wounds. Brain bleeding may occur in the brain called brain hemorrhage, so the brain contaminated by blood collection (hematoma), or blood into the subarachnoid space called the subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage there are 2 types, namely primary and secondary. Primary when a ruptured blood vessel from an artery in the subarachnoid. Secondary when the source of blood from other places outside the subarachnoid space into the room subarachnoid. In the blood vessels that rupture can occur contraction / vasocontraction, namely diminution arterial lumen or channel which can inhibit brain blood flow, and symptoms that arise depend on which brain areas are affected.

Hemorrhagic strokes are divided into:
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSA)
- Intracerebral hemorrhage (PIS), or intraventrikel intraparenkim

Saturday, October 9, 2010

Ischemic Stroke

The brain can function well if blood flow to the brain does not experience obstacles. However, if supply of oxygen and nutrients carried by blood cells and plasma blocked by blood clots or thrombosis occurs in blood vessels supplying the brain, an ischemic stroke will occur. This can result in cell death / brain tissue supplied. Obstruction of blood flow to the brain can be caused by a thrombosis or embolism and hardening of the arteries called atherosclerotic plaques through the process of atherosclerosis.

Based on the clinical course, a stroke ischemic grouped into:
- Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): temporary stroke that lasts less than
24 hours
- Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND): neurological symptoms will disappear between
> 24 hours to 21 days
- Progressing stroke or stroke in evolution: abnormalities or neurologic deficit lasted
gradually from light to become severe.
- Completed complete stroke or stroke: neurological abnormalities has been settled and no
expand again.

According to the classification test of Neurological Disorders The National Stroke Part III, based on the cause of ischemic stroke were divided into 4 groups:
- Therothrombotic: blockage of blood vessels by plaque
- Kardioemboli: blockage of blood vessels by plaque fragments (emboli) of cardiac
- Lakuner: blockage of plaque on blood vessel-shaped hole
- Other causes that lead to hypotension

There are several causes of ischemic stroke:
1. Atheroma
In ischemic stroke, blockage can occur in the path of the arteries to the brain, such as an atheroma can form in the carotid arteries causing reduced blood flow. The situation is very serious because the carotid artery in normal circumstances to give blood to most of the brain.

2. Embolism
Fat deposition can also be separated from the artery walls and flows in the blood, clogging arteries and smaller. Carotid artery and vertebral artery and its branches can be blocked due to blood clot originating from elsewhere, eg, from the heart. Formed when fat embolism from bone marrow that broke loose in the bloodstream and eventually clog the small arteries. Embolic stroke due to blockage is rare.

3. Infection
Strokes can occur when infection causes inflammation narrowing of blood vessels leading to the brain.

4. Drugs
The drugs also can lead to stroke, such as cocaine and amphetamines. By way of narrowing the lumen of blood vessels in the brain and cause strokes.

5. Hypotension
Decrease in blood pressure that suddenly can cause reduced blood flow to the brain, which usually causes a person to faint. Stroke can occur if very severe low blood pressure. This occurs when a person experiences a lot of blood loss due to injury or surgery, heart attack or abnormal heart.

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Causes of Stroke

A stroke is caused by 2 main things, namely blockage of an artery that carries blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) and since the bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). There are several factors causing stroke (multirisk factors). Eating goat and smoking is often regarded as the only cause, but there are many other factors such as eating fatty food, patterns and lifestyle, hormonal factors, and psychiatric conditions, exposed to free radicals, and the adequacy of vitamins and minerals.

In contrast to those classified as risky, such a factor hiyperlipoproteinemia (and triglyseride cholesterol in the blood above normal), although reducing fatty foods, living regular and adequate exercise, but still vulnerable to stroke.

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Definition of Stroke

Stroke is a form of brain functional disorders penyalit nerve palsy / neurologic deficit due to interruption of blood flow in one part of the brain. Stroke is defined as a disease of the brain due to interruption of blood supply to the brain due to blockage or bleeding, with symptoms of momentary paralysis, or severe symptoms until loss of consciousness or death. Stroke can be ischemic or bleeding (hemorrhagic).

In ischemic stroke, blood flow to the brain stops because of atherosclerotic or blood clot that has clogged the blood vessels, through the process of atherosclerosis.

At the stroke bleeding / hemorrhagic, rupture of blood vessels so that blood flow becomes abnormal and the blood that comes out into a region in the brain and cause damage.

Acute stroke, either ischemic or bleeding is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment because it can cause permanent disability or death.

According to WHO, stroke is the clinical signs of disturbance of cerebral function both locally and globally, is growing rapidly, with symptoms that lasted for 24 hours or more, or leading to death without visible cause, in addition to signs pertaining to the flow blood in the brain. Stroke is a disease of acute brain functional disorders, both locally and globally, due to interruption of blood flow to the brain because of bleeding or blockage, which can recover completely, recover with a disability or result in death.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Introduction About Stroke (2)

Stroke can be classified in chronic penyakir because of a long process, although it occurs in acute stroke. Process until the occurrence of stroke may have occurred several years before a stroke appear. Symptoms of stroke depend on where yamg affected brain vessels, the amount of blockage in the brain, the part where the blood vessels that rupture and whether parts of the brain are affected quite vital. Not all strokes cause symptoms.

Although there is no presenting symptoms in patients with stroke, does not mean definitely not a stroke. Maybe the process is already underway, because the symptoms of stroke occur if the blockage has reached 80%. These conditions are for those at risk of stroke preventive save meanings. If only the process of stroke can be prevented or stopped, then the likelihood of stroke does not occur. But people who experience a stroke process usually do not realize that his brain is being threatened stroke. Someone had to know if a stroke occurs when the examination process with tools.

The initial symptoms of stroke that may arise, could be in the form of momentary paralysis (Transient Ischaemic Attack) which is often called a mild stroke. That is an initial process towards a severe stroke emerging in part and usually recovers itself within 1-2 days. But when a minor stroke which left without treatment means, a time will appear more severe stroke, and most will be too late to be cured completely. A variety of stroke symptoms to watch out for, especially for those at risk of stroke, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hiperlipdemia, hypercholesterolemia or who suffer from heart disease, fragile psychological stress or a combination of these factors.

Stroke in an early stage may appear as a stroke in evolution. Namely stroke symptoms had appeared, but the process has not finished a stroke, still continues so still will flourish again. Within hours, the condition of the patient worsens or the patient becomes unconscious conscious self.

There is also a direct cause of stroke that paralyzed half of the body is called completed strokes. Where the stroke has been completed and no longer growing.

The case of a stroke can occur as a recurrent stroke. If the first stroke treatment is not done to hinder the process of stroke, the stroke aftershocks will occur again. Attacks could occur at the same location of the brain, as well as in other areas of the brain with symptoms and manifestations are different.

All cases of stroke must be addressed urgently, in within 3 hours after the first stroke appears. The goal is to damage brain cells are still in the process does not get worse, so that could still be saved.

Friday, October 1, 2010

Introduction About Stroke (1)

Stroke is still the leading cause of death in the world. These diseases also have an impact on the most disabled adults who are still productive. The high cases of stroke due to low public awareness in addressing the various risk factors that could cause a stroke.

Stroke (cerebroscascular accident) is not just attacking people aged over 50 years, but also the productive age are still working. Even in some cases, this disease is still aged under 30 years old.

Stroke is a brain attack that occurs suddenly, without any advance warning. The disease is partly due to blockage of plaque thrombotic and bleeding. That is an artery or rupture of blood vessels in the brain tiaba blue.

Stroke can actually be prevented, treated and rehabilitated. Stroke patients may seek to control the situation better than the previous time. We can realize that to overcome some or almost all matters relating to stroke, and return to a healthy lifestyle. Strategies to reduce the number of defects due to stroke and death is by primary prevention, secondary and effective treatment to optimize quality of life.

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Treatment of Avian Influenza

Treatment for patients with avian influenza are hospitalized at the hospital in isolation rooms. To get the appropriate treatment and care because this disease is dangerous. Patients should receive oxygen for breathing, fluid perenteral, antiviral drugs and other treatments required by patients.

Antivirus Drugs
There are 4 types of drugs that can be used as an influenza A antiviral medication that is: amantadin, rimantadin, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Four drugs can be used for the treatment of ordinary influenza (seasonal influenza). But not all drugs can be used to treat diseases caused by avian influenza A subtype H5N1 influenza virus. Based on research by experts, the H5N1 virus is resistant to rimantadin and amantadin.

Oseltamivir is administered orally and inhaled zanamivir are effective against the H5N1 virus. Besides being used in pengobata, oseltamivir also be used as prophylaxis or prevention of avian influenza disease.

The use of oseltamivir is closely monitored in order to avoid resistance to the drug. Therefore, while it is experiencing influenza, may not easily be drinking or drug oseltamivir as prifilaksis, must go through a doctor's prescription.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Avian Influenza Prevention Through Human

For high-risk groups (poultry workers, traders, poultry) is required the following actions:
- Always wash hands with soap or disinfectant
- Shower after work
- Avoid direct contact with birds affected by avian influenza virus
- Leave work clothes at work
- Immunization / vaccination

For society in general, keep in mind is to maintain personal hygiene and the environment and obtain the vaccination.

To maintain personal hygiene and the environment it is necessary to:
- No touching infected poultry of avian influenza virus
- Always wash hands after contact with poultry
- Keeping poultry in the right way such as: choosing healthy poultry, cook meat until done, and so forth
- Keeping the immune system with healthy living, eating nutritious food, adequate rest, exercising regularly and avoiding stress and smoking.
- Where was ill then have to wear a mask and avoid the places that are no outbreaks of avian influenza
- Do not consume food that is still raw
- Keeping personal hygiene and the environment remains well tejaga

Until now there is no vaccine that can prevent the development of avian influenza virus in humans. Vaccines for influenza is currently available for influenza illness caused by influenza A virus subtype H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B. Effective vaccine provides protection against common influenza to 70-90% in healthy adults. Influenza vaccine must match the type and subtype viruses, because the vaccine can provide protection against H5N1 body. The use of vaccines in humans must be careful to avoid mutation of the virus. But the vaccine can help reduce complications and supportive care in hospitals.

Regular vaccination against influenza is recommended for those who are more at risk for complications from influenza. The vaccine should not be given to patients with acute fever, pregnant women in trimester I and infants up to age 6 months.

Normally vitamin or supplement is not required. The best way to boost the immune system is by eating nutritious foods, regular exercise and healthy living.

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Prevention of Avian Influenza Through Poultry

Prevention of spread of avian influenza can be done by conducting preventive measures against avian.

The basic principle of prevention, control and eradication of avian influenza in poultry is by doing the following:
- Prevent contact with poultry is susceptible to H5N1 virus
- Eliminate the H5N1 virus with the decontamination / disinfection
- Improve your immune by vaccination
- Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy living and clean and care of the disease avian influenza

Precautions that can be done is:
1. Improve biosecurity, an act that strict oversight and safeguards against avian influenza infected poultry
2. Vaccination of healthy poultry
3. Depopulation or culling poultry infected with avian influenza viruses within a radius of 3 km.
4. Controlling traffic in and out of poultry.
5. Surveillance of avian influenza case.
6. Restocking.
7. Stamping out of all poultry infected.
8. Public Awareness.
9. Monitoring and evaluation

Things that should be done for poultry when an outbreak of avian influenza has not occurred:
1. Keeping poultry in good condition by providing clean water, food and vaccinations.
2. Maintain cleanliness and health of cattle.
3. Checking the goods that enter farms for free from avian influenza virus.

Things that should be done for poultry farms in the event of an outbreak of avian influenza:
1. Birds infected with avian influenza virus should be destroyed by burning and then buried.
2. Keeping poultry in a protected place such as in a cage separate from the house.
3. Limiting the people who enter the farm.
4. Always clean the cages, equipment and vehicles on the ranch by using a disinfectant regularly.
5. Storing manure away from ponds or water reservoirs.

Friday, September 17, 2010

Pandemic Influenza

If the virus influenza A (H5N1) can infect humans and spread easily to all people, it is called a pandemic influenza. No one knows when and how a pandemic will occur. So we need to be vigilant and be prepared to face all possibilities that arise. As well as trying to prevent it from happening virus spread easily between humans.

Pandemic Influenza
Pandemic influenza is an influenza epidemic in the world which caused a new influenza virus subtype is causing serious illness and spread easily between humans. The H5N1 virus into a pandemic influenza threat because the virus is a new virus to humans has never existed before and has infected more than 100 people. And there is no immunity against H5N1 influenza virus to humans.

There are some epidemiological parameters of the most good for pandemic influenza is excess mortality rate every week. As a result of pneumonia and influenza symptoms on average. Another additional parameter is the increase in the number of people who do not work and the number of patients who go to the doctor or hospital because of respiratory disease.

There are several reasons that we must be vigilant against the H5N1 virus, among others:
- The H5N1 virus is a new virus for humans, not previously exist among humans. This virus has infected hundreds of people with very high mortality rate of 80%
- Currently, poultry has become a reservoir for the H5N1 virus without showing symptoms of illness
- The H5N1 virus is compared with the year 1997, more lethal and able to survive longer
- The H5N1 virus has been infecting and killing mammalian species such as pigs, horses, cats and humans
- Conduct habitat H5N1 virus had changed. The presence of H5N1 virus in domestic birds, humans have increased the risk of transmission and spread in humans also the cattle industry.

There are 3 things that could start a pandemic influenza, namely:
1. The existence of a new virus
2. The virus can multiply and cause serious illness in humans
3. The virus is easily spread among humans

The H5N1 virus is potentially causing a pandemic.
Host virus H5N1 highly variable from poultry to migratory birds and are geographically spread almost throughout the territory in the world.
Economic losses caused by the death of poultry during outbreaks of avian influenza is very large.
Pandemic cause of death and a very high disease in just a few weeks.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Diagnosis Virology of Avian Influenza

Diagnosis of virology conducted to ensure whether the infecting subtype H5N1 or another. How ataumetode examination used to detect avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 were:
1. Serological examination to detect antibody / antigen on the patient's body
2. Isolation and identification of virus
3. Detecting H5 spesifih RNA by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)

A. Serology Examination
Antobodi will arise because of the efforts of the body to protect yourself from viruses that enter. Several methods can be used to detect influenza A virus-specific antibodies are formed in the body is the hemagglutination inhibition test, complement fixation test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigens in patients with influenza A virus infection can be examined with ELISA method.

Materials used for serological examination from the patient's blood serum. Currently available rapid test in the form of kits that can quickly deliver results, but less accurate. Results will be received within approximately 1-2 hours.

Because the results are less accurate and can not find a subtype of influenza A virus that infects, it must perform the examination began a more sensitive and precise to ensure that the H5N1 virus as the cause.

B. Isolation and Identification of Viruses
How to inspection by isolating the virus is the most excellent and very decisive. However, this examination requires sophisticated tools and techniques are also experts. So it is not used routinely in the laboratory.

Examination materials which can be used for the isolation of the virus is grown from sputum in patients with pneumonia. Virus isolation is done by planting material that will be checked on a network or embryonated chicken eggs, then examined influenza A virus subtype that has isolated them.

C. RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Method of examination was conducted to provide accurate results about the cause of the H5N1 avian influenza has been done and as a serologic confirmation. There are several kinds of methods have been developed to detect viral RNA of influenza A.

Molecular diagnosis has several advantages, such as sensitive. Because it can detect small amounts of viral components, is able to distinguish the genetic material with a higher level of differentiation, providing results in a relatively more rapid.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Case Definition of Avian Influenza

1. Suspect Case
Called suspect cases if there are symptoms of fever> 38 "C accompanied by at least 1 symptom and a result of virus / history of the following contacts:
A. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, runny nose, headache, sore throat and shortness of breath
B. The result of the virus / history of contacts:
- Inspection results positive for influenza A virus without knowing subtype
- History of contacts 1 week before onset of symptoms with birds that died because of illness
- History of contacts 1 week before onset of symptoms by patients who proved to confirm the laboratory
- Specialized laboratory workers handling samples from persons or animals suspected of being infected Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses working in the laboratory 1 week before onset of symptoms

2. Probable Case
Probable cases were suspect cases with positive serologic results indicating the occurrence of specific antibody titer increased by 4 times the normal value

3. Confirmed Cases
The case confirmed when positive results of H5N1 virus culturing or examination results by Rt-PCR positive for H5N1. Or an increase in H5-specific antibody titers greater than 4 times the normal value and the results of the IFA (immunofluorescence antibody) positive for H5 antigen.

4. Case Exposured
Exposured cases are cases that show no clinical symptoms or remain healthy but serologic examination showed positive results.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

Diagnosis of Avian Influenza

Diagnosis is done by:
1. Anamnesis of the symptoms suffered by patients, and a history of exposure or the presence of risk factors such as the death of sick poultry or poultry on the farm.
2. Physical examination, such as body temperature more than 38 "C, rapid breathing and pharyngeal hyperemia.
3. In the laboratory blood tests obtained by leucopenia, limfopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild to moderate aminotransferase levels increased slightly and kadara krestin also increased.
4. Examination levels of urea / creatinine, krestinin krease, albumin / globulin and blood gas analysis with tuhuan to know the status of the patient.
5. After radiological examination using chest x-ray images / piston. Then get a picture of scattered or localized infiltrate in the lung. This shows the process of infection due to viruses or bacteria in the lung, known as pneumonia. Preview radiology examination results to be indicators of disease worsening of avian influenza.

Thursday, September 9, 2010

Avian Influenza Symptoms

Symptoms of avian influenza among poultry and humans differ.

A. Symptoms in Birds
'- Blue comb
'- Bleeding evenly on the feet in the form of red spots or sores on the feet often terpata
'- The presence of fluid in the eye and nose causing respiratory distress
'- Out until thick clear fluid from the mouth
'- Diarrhea
'- Often thirsty and soft egg shells
'- Sudden death is very high and the number approaches 100% within 2 days maximum of 1 week
'- The incubation period is about 1 week

B. Symptoms in Humans
'- Preceded the incubation period which lasts several days, generally 1-3 days, in children can be up to 21 days.
Initially the patient showed symptoms of fever and influenza-like symptoms such as headache, cough, runny nose, muscle aches, and sore throat. Sometimes symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, nose bleeding and bleeding in mouth. In children frequently encountered symptoms of otitis media (middle ear infection).
'- A few days later, shortness of breath, that is one occurrence of infection in the lung
'- Complications will occur if the patient was taken to the hospital too late for treatment. Complications are respiratory failure and multiple organ failure characterized by symptoms of non-functioning kidney and heart, up to sepsis and even death.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Transmission of Avian Influenza

Diseases of avian influenza transmitted from poultry to poultry, from birds to humans and are restricted from human to human. Although until now there has been no contact by direct and indirect contacts possible.

A. Transmission Between Poultry
Diseases of avian influenza can be transmitted through contaminated air H5N1 viruses originating from feces of sick birds. Transmission can also occur through drinking water and food that has been contaminated by feces of infected avian influenza.

In poultry farms, transmission can occur through the mechanical equipment, cages, clothing, or shoes that have been exposed to avian influenza virus (H5N1), also the farm workers.

B. Transmission from Birds to Humans
Transmission of avian influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur when human contact with poultry infected with avian influenza virus. Or with objects contaminated by their faeces which contain the virus H5N1 illness.

Until now, cases of avian influenza in humans is more common in rural areas or cities with dense population. In this area removable and fowl are kept in a cage not included. Many birds found in the home cage or where children play. With these conditions it is very possible transmission from sick poultry to humans, because in the feces of sick birds have the H5N1 virus.

C. Inter-Human Transmission
Until now, transmission of avian influenza virus (H5N1) from humans to humans has not occurred. This transmission model is likely to occur, although not efficient, Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change genetically. Transmission of influenza A (H5N1) among human characterized with infected people in one group as in family, school or office. This is called a cluster.

D. Transmission of the Human Environment
Theoretically, this transmission model could be due to the H5N1 virus can survive in nature or the environment. Transmission that occurs because the water is contaminated by avian influenza viruses into humans through the mouth when the nose by swimming or water contaminated with feces from poultry infected with H5N1 virus. Poultry litter, especially the chicken which is usually used as a fertilizer plant is one risk factor for the spread of avian influenza.

E. Transmission to Other Mammals
Avian influenza virus (H5N1) can spread directly on several different mammals, namely pigs, horses, marine mammals, lions, tigers, cats, and ferrets.
According to the research that has been done, the pig does not play an important role in avian influenza caused by H5N1 virus in Asia.

Sunday, September 5, 2010

Spread of Avian Influenza

The spread of avian influenza virus (H5N1) through migrating birds. Poultry such as ducks and geese and gulls and sea birds are carriers of influenza A virus subtype H5 and H7. The virus is carried by birds is less dangerous. Poultry is also a natural reservoir for all influenza virus A.

Species that are sensitive or vulnerable birds infected with H5 or H7 are the types of poultry such as chickens, turkeys, quail, guinea fowl and birds kuau.

As a carrier of avian influenza virus subtype H5 and H7, these birds showed no signs of illness. This is due to H5 and H7 viruses found in these birds is less dangerous and low pathogenicity. This kind of virus only causes a decrease in egg production, broiler weight down. Once inside the body and circulation poultry, influenza A virus will adapt and mutate into a dangerous form within a few months.

It should be noted that the H5 or H7 virus in poultry need to be wary of. Because the virus can live in the human body and mammals such as pigs, cats and horses.

Friday, September 3, 2010

Avian Influenza Causes

The cause of avian influenza is influenza A virus subtype H5N1. Influenza virus included in the Family Orthomyxoviridae consisting of 3 types of pathogens for human influenza virus that is type A, B, C. Influenza virus A spiral-shaped symmetrical and has a casing that encloses the genetic material in the form of single chain RNA negative polarity. This virus has 2 types of protrusion of the haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Strains of type A were coded according to antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) as an example of H1N1, H2N2, H3N2 and H5N1. And there are 16 H subtypes (H1-H16) and 9 N subtypes (N1-N9).

In influenza A virus can occur major changes in antigenic composition, called antigenic shift. Or small changes in antigenic composition, called antigenic drift. Peubahan these changes that lead to epidemics and even pandemics.

The wave of the epidemic because of influenza A viruses periodically take place every 2-3 years, while the period of interepidemi for influenza B is longer ie 3-6 years. Every 10-40 years, when the influenza A virus subtype appears new, there will be a pandemic like the 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2). In the year 1997 has emerged a new subtype of H5N1, although until now has not resulted in a pandemic.

In humans there is only influenza A viruses of subtypes H1N1, H2N2, H3N3, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2 and H7N7. While the animal is a subtype H1 to H5 and N1 to N9.

Of all these subtypes, only influenza A virus subtypes H5 and H7 that have been known to cause a dangerous disease. However, not all influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 dangerous, and also not all cause disease in poultry.

It is important to know the properties of avian influenza virus (H5N1), because then to find out how Vitus H5N1 transmitted and how to prevent transmission.

The properties of avian influenza virus (H5N1) is:
- Easily change the shape and mutate
- Survival in water for 4 days at 22 "C and more than 30 days at 0" C.
- Survive live longer in the body of sick birds.
- Dead on heating 80 "C for 1 minute or with a temperature of 60: C for 30 minutes and at a temperature of 56" C for 3 hours.
- Off with detergent, disinfectant (formalin), the liquid containing iodine (betadine) and potassium sodium hypochlorite (bleach clothes).

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Introduction Avian influenza

Influenza disease was already there from earlier times. Because disease very easily spread, has occurred several times with the cause of pandemic influenza viruses of different influenza A subtype. Spanish flu which occurred in 1918 in which the cause was influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and make 40-50 million people died. Asian flu caused by influenza A virus subtype H2N2 occurred in 1957 also made a lot of casualties. Then in 1968 arising pandemic caused by H3N2 influenza with a death toll of about 1 million people.

Outbreaks of avian influenza caused by influenza A subtype H5N1 virus began to be known in 1997 in Hong Kong, With source of infection and spread from poultry farms. Furthermore, rapidly spread across the world to become global.

The development of avian flu occurring in Indonesia are also very fast since the virus was found in 2004, namely the birds and then spread rapidly in humans.

With the high number of deaths from avian flu, we need to be vigilant for this disease does not develop into a pandemic. For that preventive measures should be taken individually or in the environment.

Avian Influenza
Avian influenza is a disease penyalit caused by influenza viruses that are transmitted by birds, in this case chickens, ducks, birds, geese, turkeys and other.

Actually avian influenza disease is in animals (zoonoses). However, in its development, the virus that causes the disease have mutations that cause this virus can be transmitted to humans. Avian influenza can affect the whole nation and cause a pandemic in 2-3 year.

In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two forms of the disease that is the form of low pathogenicity (low pathogenic) and the highly pathogenic form (high-pathogenic). Form of low pathogenicity and disease does not kill often called Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Causes only mild symptoms and is usually not detected. The disease is transmitted carriers of avian influenza virus to domestic poultry. While the pathogenic form called Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Cause symptoms are very severe, and contagious diseases of the organ-menyabbakan organtybyh poultry. The death rate of 100% in just 48 hours in poultry. Examples of this virus is H5N1.

Monday, August 23, 2010

Role of Diet for Kidney Stone Formation

As already mentioned, it is important for patients to drink plenty of water for more than 2 liters per day. Water is very important in handling all types of kidney stones, whatever the cause.

Drink lots of water will dissolve the urine and prevents crystallization of minerals that can form stones. The main objective of food regulation is to fix defects in a chemical process during digestion, absorption and utilization of minerals.

Your doctor will recommend lowering eat that increase risk and increase the consumption of foods that may inhibit stone formation. More than 75% of kidney stones are calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. And calcium oxalate stones are a most common.

Calcium needs from foods that are recommended is 400-500 mg / day. To get the amount of calcium, it is necessary to limit milk and milk product maximum only 1 cup / day. We also need to reduce calcium-rich foods such as:
'- Cheese, cream milk, khoya
'- Fish and seafood such as crabs, chingri, shrimp, snails
'- Soybeans
'- Sesame, poppy seed, lemon skin
'- Phalsa
'- Curry leaves, black Arbi leaves, leaf FENUGREEK
'- Jaggery

Oxalate in urine separately from calcium to form calcium oxalate stones. Therefore, the need to avoid foods that contain oxalate.

Uric acid stones
This stone is associated with gout / Gout (a disease with sudden and recurring attacks of arthritis is very painful. Because of the deposits of monosodium uric crystals, which accumulate in the joints. As a result of high levels of uric acid in the blood).
Aspirin can increase the expenditure of uric acid in urine which resulted in an increase of uric acid stone formation.
The most important factor in the formation of stones is acid urine.
The disease is treated with adequate fluid and normalizes urine becomes acidic pH 6 to 6.5.
This is done by increasing the consumption of foods and supplements alkali citrate and bicarbonate.
If the concentration of uric acid is very high, your doctor may recommend restriction of dietary protein.
Reduce or avoid foods that contain purine. Should not consume tea, coffee and cocoa to excess.

Because the diet used effects of acid and alkaline content of urine for the modification of diet pH urine remain at normal limits. Most fruits and vegetables make the urine becomes alkaline, while high protein foods, breads, cereals make urine becomes acidic. But reduce consumption of these foods do not need to avoid altogether.

It is important to remember though symptoms of various types of kidney stones together, depending on the type of treatment. Because it should follow the advice of doctors, especially in terms of food. Limiting consumption of some foods that increase stones formation can be dangerous for us. Reduce the risk factor in bladder through natural dietary components. For example, tartaric acid contained in tamarind can reduce the formation of kidney stones.

Saturday, August 21, 2010

Types of Kidney Stones Surgery

That wave of focus can destroy kidney stones. Currently developed lithotripsy machine.
In this procedure, the wave produced outside the body is made spread through skin and tissue to destroy kidney stones.
These waves break the stones into particles smaller like sand.
There are several different methods of lithotripsy. None of these methods which require an incision at the skin. Most only require a brief anesthetic.
Sometimes, x-rays and ultrasound are also used together with lithotripsy for doctors to target precisely the wave on stone.
During this procedure, the patient may feel pressure on your back. But do not feel any pain at all. This procedure may last for 1 hour.
Lithotripsy may cause some minor complications. Patients may feel a bit sore on the body part that is passed by the wave.
There may be blood in the urine for several days after treatment.
Sometimes, the particles are small stones that come out through the urinary tract causing pain and discomfort.
Sometimes stones are not broken into particles as the sand that may be required surgical procedure to remove it.
To solve the hard rock into small pieces require more than 1 lithotripsy, but there is a possibility the stone is not broken at all.

Endoscopic stone surgery
In this procedure, the doctor will insert a flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra.
The doctor will take the stone which lies in both the ureter and the bladder with the aid of a wire basket to catch these stones.
This procedure is used for the stone that sits at the bottom of the ureter near the bladder.

Open surgery
About 5% of patients with kidney stones are likely to require open surgery, especially if a large stone and stuck in the kidney.
During surgery, the doctor will cut the skin along the 5-10 inches.
Then the doctor will cut the tissue, including kidney stones and retrieve it manually.
Most likely the patient will recover within 4-6 weeks after surgery.

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Kidney Stone Treatment Through Surgery

Surgery is the primary means of treatment of kidney stones. Indications for kidney stone surgery are:
'- Stone can not get out themselves and cause severe pain
'- Stone is very large and can not get out of the urinary tract
'- Stone obstruct or impede the flow of urine
'- Stone causing urinary tract infection
'- The damage to the kidney function
'- Blood is always out when pee pee
At this time there have been several new techniques that only require a small incision in the skin to remove the stone so that the patient does not need length of stay in hospital.
There are several surgical options for treating kidney stones.

Percutaneous Surgery
In this procedure, a hole is made in the skin and through the equipment included in the body in order to reach the kidney directly.
Special tool used to solve the stones into small pieces and to throw it away.
A large number of kidney stones can be taken through this procedure.
The success rate of percutaneous surgery for kidney stones more than 95%.
Patients may need to stay in hospital for several days after this procedure.
A tube may be placed in the body to drain fluids from the procedures performed during the recovery period.

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Kidney Stone Treatment

Here are a few options in dealing with kidney stone disease.

Drinking enough water
The only treatment proven kidney stones is to make sure to drink enough fluids.
Highly recommended for people with much to drink and urinate a minimum of 2 liters of urine per day.
This means patients have to drink all day and night. The patient may be often wake up at night to drink or pee pee.
Drinking hard water is not dangerous because the benefits exceed the negative effects of high calcium content in water.
If people work in environments with high temperature, patients have a greater possibility for excessive sweating and suffering from dehydration. Therefore, patients must often drink water in large quantities.
It is important to remember that if we drink water in sufficient quantities, then the urine turns clear as water. Yellowish color means the urine is concentrated and we need more frequent drinking.

Your doctor may recommend some medications that control the amount of acid or alkali in the urine because it is the main factor in stone formation.
Allopurinol is recommended if the patient has a high uric acid levels because this drug can lower uric acid levels.
There are several medications that can reduce calcium levels in the blood and is beneficial to the have kidney stones and high levels of calcium.
Hidroklorothiazid reduce the amount of calcium released by the kidneys into the urine to prevent calcium stones.
Sodium cellulose phosphate binding of calcium in the intestine and prevent it out into the urine.
Thiola recommended sometimes if you have cystine stones because these drugs reduce the amount sistin in urine. The drugs can prevent kidney stones ill.
In the case of kidney stones due to infection, your doctor will probably recommend antibiotics to prevent infection of bacteria after the stone is removed.
Doctors also may recommend a urine test at a regular frequency to detect bacteria in urine.
If the stone can not be removed because of infection, a newer drug called asetohidroamik acid may be recommended along with antibiotics to prevent infection.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Laboratory Tests Patients with Kidney Stones

There are 3 reasons why laboratory tests are recommended for people with kidney stones:
- To find the type of kidney stone
- To identify the factors that contribute to the formation of kidney stones
- To detect damage to the kidney caused by stone

Laboratory tests are usually recommended are:
- Blood tests to check urea, serum creatinine, uric acid, calcium and phosphate.
- Checking urine to detect infection and to detect the existence of crystal
- These crystals help detect any type of stone in the ureter
- Sometimes the analysis of urine samples collected over 24 hours
- These tests are used to detect levels of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalic
- X-ray and abdominal ultrasound is recommended to determine the presence or absence of kidney stones and to identify the size and location
- Pielografi intravenous is a special x-ray test in which a contrast dye is injected into the veins
- Coloring is outstanding contrast to the kidneys and excreted in the urine
- When the dye is concentrated in the ureter, this dye did not make it transparent and visible when the X ray
- This test also detects obstacles in the urinary tract

Friday, August 13, 2010

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Most people with kidney stones do not feel any symptoms. The disease is more frequently detected on routine examination and tests for other diseases in the stomach. Even a very large stones such as kidney does not cause any symptoms.
- The most severe symptoms of kidney stones is severe pain and there is blood in the urine.
- Pain is usually in the pelvic region, on the left or right depending on the stone is located in the kidney.
- The pain may radiate to the groin and often feel burning when pee pee and sometimes remove small stones while urinating.
- If there are stones in the kidney, usually causing pain in the waist.
- Stone in the ureter causing severe pain most commonly spread to the testicles or the tip of the penis.
- Stone can also be found in the bladder, although more common in children and malnourished people.
- Bladder stones are almost never found in developing countries.
- Stone in urinary tract infection often causes. If you often complain of urinary tract infection, so doctors recommend a test to detect stones.
- People with recurrent urinary infections are also more likely to get kidney stones.
- Stone usually formed from magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate.
- So, urinary infections and kidney stones are related.
- Recurrent urinary tract infections can affect kidney function, it can even cause kidney failure.
- Another major problem of kidney stones is to hamper the flow of urine.
- Obstacles are causing pressure and swelling on the back of the kidney.
- Swelling of the kidney is called hydronephrosis. This is a serious complication and if not treated promptly, can eliminate kidney function.
- Because we have kidney, loss of kidney function in 1 kidney caused by stones usually do not cause any problems.
- Usually, kidney stones are detected when the kidneys are also affected.
- If there are stones in both kidneys and begin to interfere with its function, it will be difficult to restore renal function to normal levels.
- Kidney stones can also cause high blood pressure. So it is important to follow laboratory tests to detect the level of kidney function, especially those with high blood pressure.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Other Factors Increase the Risk of Kidney Stones

Some other factors that increase the risk of developing kidney stones are:
- Siblings kidney stone patients exposed to greater risk of kidney stones
- Not known definitely caused by similar environmental factors such as food, environmental, and others.
- Hot weather increase stone formation.
- Kidney stones are more common in military circles that move to places in hot weather.
- The climate is hot to increase sweat production and produce a high concentration of urine.
- Increasing sunshine causing increased absorption of vitamin D from the skin.
- The high vitamin D in the body increases the absorption of calcium in urine increased spending.
- People who have mental stress has a concentration of calcium, oxalate and uric acid are higher in the urine.
- Not yet unknown exactly how stress causes excessive concentration on rersebut substances.
Man - who urinated less than 1 liter per day at risk of kidney stones.
- Some experts believe that drinking hard water regularly can increase your risk for kidney stones. But it can not be proved.
- Hard water contains a higher amount of calcium, thus increasing the risk of kidney stones.
- People are less mobile or more work outdoors exposed to higher risk for kidney stones.
- People who consume dairy products, dietary fiber and carbohydrate and low in animal meat in a large portion is exposed to greater risk for kidney stones.

Monday, August 9, 2010

Factors Cause Kidney Stones

General factors
- The decreasing concentration of chemical substances such as magnesium, citrate, pyrophosphate and others. These substances inhibit the formation of crystals in urine.
- Increasing the concentration of chemicals such as calcium, fosfsat, oxalate, uric acid and Sistin. These substances increase the formation of crystals in urine.
- Lack of drinking.
- Frequently exposed to sunlight and excessive sweating.
- Family members who suffer from kidney stones, especially siblings.
- Stress
- Dispose of urine is less than 1 liter per day.
- Less moving.
- Increased eating dairy products, meat and animal diets low in fiber.

Underlying diseases:
- Increased activity of the parathyroid glands. This is the second pair of endocrine glands located behind the thyroid gland in front of the neck. They produce a hormone that increases blood calcium levels by mobilizing from the bone.
- Increasing levels of oxalic acid oksalit or in urine. This happens due to lack an enzyme needed to digest oksalit acid or lipid absorption abnormalities in the small intestine. Oksalit acid source is a common fruit and vegetables.
- Tubula in kidney
- A condition where there is an amino acid called Sistin in urine.
This is caused by a rare disease. Amino acids are protein-building compounds.
- Gout. This is a disease which is associated with the errors inherent in the use of uric acid thereby increasing the production of uric acid or interfere with urine by expenditure.
- Various disease that produces resistance in urinary tract.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Causes of Kidney Stones

Here is the factor-factor that increases the risk of developing kidney stones.
- The fall in the concentration of chemical substances that inhibit crystallization of other chemicals
- Increasing the concentration of chemical substances which have a tendency to crystallize
- There are chemical substances that can crystallize in kisaean super saturated.
- The type of stone depending on the chemical overload.
- The majority of stones are calcium stones because the most common minerals found in urine
- Calcium can form calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate or both.
- Uric acid is formed when protein is digested and released in the body.
- Excess uric acid in urine can cause uric acid stones. This stone is more common among non-vegetarians.
- The majority of people affected by kidney stones because they drink less fluids.
- Lack of drinking menbuat highly concentrated urine, so that the chemicals in it becomes super saturated.
- Kidney stones are also common in weather conditions that increase sweat production.
- Kidney stones are also caused by fluid loss through perspiration and the lack of fluids to drink., So that the volume of urine becomes less. His form is also more concentrated.
- Terkadi kidney stones are more common in the Gulf States and North India.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

Kidney Stone Formation

Urine is a liquid containing a large number of chemical substances that dissolve in it. Most of the chemicals are only slightly soluble and if any of excessive amounts of substances, substances that will form crystals. These crystals will grow over time and become a stone walk.

Chemical substances that are usually formed stones include calcium, phosphate, oxalate, uric acid and cystine. Most of these minerals found in urine with a concentration just below the levels so that it can dissolve. That is why minerals bias remains a liquid and does not form crystals.

Urine kidney stone patients more frequently contain these minerals and they are more easily form crystals than ordinary people. The presence of crystals in urine does not always lead to the formation of stones in the urinary tract. Normal people get rid of crystals of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, and uric acid in urine and kidney stones is never exposed.

This is caused by 3 main reasons:
1. The concentration of these chemicals have never been in the range of super-saturated.
2. Levels of chemicals that inhibit crystallization of some chemical substances in urine is high enough.
3. Substances that inhibit crystallization in urine, including magnesium, citrate, pyrophosphate, and several other molecules. Those who caused the mineral remains in a soluble form.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

About Kidney

Kidneys are bean-shaped organ located below the large ribs, on either side of the bone belakang.Setiap kidneys have 4-5 inches long and 2 to 2.5 inches thick. The size is about the size of a fist.

The inside of the kidney-shaped concave and has a wedge-like shape. Arteries, veins, nerves and kidneys through the ureter associated with this into the cavity in the ginjal.2 main artery of the kidney is divided into 4 or 5 branches.

Next divided into branches that grew smaller, until each small branch into clumps of blood vessels are small and dense, capillaries, called a glomerulus.

Clots This allows fluid and food debris through the walls so that they can be issued in the form of urine. Glomerulus is the main filter unit of the nephron, which is the functional units of the kidney. There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney.

Approximately 180 liters of blood is filtered by the kidneys every day. At the end of filtration, the kidneys make up about 1.5 liters of urine every day. The remainder reabsorbed by the body through arteries.

The kidneys filter blood, remove excess fluids and food scraps and turn into urine. The kidneys also maintain the balance of various chemical substances contained in blood.

Urine is formed in the kidney functional parts are collected in one place called the renal pelvis. Shaped like a funnel. Urine enters the wide end and pass through the small end into the ureter. The ureter is a tube measuring 14-18 inches from each kidney.

This channel to channel urine from the kidney to the bladder until removed from the body. Stones can form anywhere between the renal pelvis, ureter or bladder. Its size also varied, ranging from rice to fist size.

Sunday, August 1, 2010

Introduction About Kidney Stones

Having a kidney stone is one of the most difficult conditions and have experienced many people. Kidney stones are one of the most common abnormality on urine sakuran. Kidney stones are not easy issues, this disease is the leading cause of kidney failure events. Medications are properly and timely manner can prevent serious complications such kidney failure.

Stone found in the urinary tract is a common disorder occurs because the urine including chemical liquid containing a number of chemical substances. These substances can be crystallized easily, then enlarged to form a stone.

Number of patients with kidney stones each year more and more, especially in countries growing industry. Kalainan is relatively rare in countries with economies based on agriculture. Because the types of foods and eating habits play a role in the formation of kidney stones.

Kidney stones are more likely experienced by men than women.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Therapy of Diabetes Patients

- Combination therapy: do when blood glucose control could be better, that way of working is different but the medicine gave a synergy effect.
- Therapy Advanced: especially for patients with type 1 diabetes pancreas transplant can be a small part or whole.
- Therapy accompanying diseases: blood sugar control drugs can be given concurrently with the hypertensive drugs and drug hipokolesterolemia

Monitoring Medications
Monitoring blood sugar levels is an important part of diabetes treatment.
The presence of glucose from the urine of known bias, but examination of urine is not a good way to monitor treatment or adjust the dose of medication. Currently blood sugar levels can be measured easily by patients themselves at home. People with diabetes should record their blood sugar levels and report to the doctor so that dose of insulin or hypoglycemic medications can be adjusted.

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Non-Insulin Diabetes Treatment

Treatment of diabetes type 2 diabetes primarily consisted of: control of blood glucose (diet therapy, exercise, medication), treatment of disease (hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia), and the detection or treatment complications. Eating arrangements generally have a maximum effect after 2-4 weeks. Similarly, the administration of drugs, generally provide a maximum effect within 1-2 weeks.

There are some things that need attention in the treatment of diabetes using oral hypoglycemic drugs, among others:
- Diabetes type 2 with normal body weight or more
- People with diabetes aged over 40 years
- Diabetes lasted less than five years
- Requires insulin dose less than 40 units a day

1. Sulfonylurea
Sulfonylurea group of drugs that are especially useful in diabetic patients is only about five years or less. Because drugs (glipizide, gluburide) can improve insulin rapidly, this drug can be taken immediately after eating, so there is no hypoglycemia. The following types of more secure the sulfonylurea glimepiride. There are drugs other than sulfonylurea class of repaglinide and nateglinide, which stimulates insulin secretion by working directly on pancreatic beta cells. This last class of drug groups is given before meals, with the aim of reducing hyperglycemia after a meal. These drugs work quick and fast, so the impact of lower hypoglycemia.

This group of drugs should be administered cautiously in renal, liver, pregnant and lactating women and stressful. Can not be given in patients with type 1 diabetes.

2. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Examples of this drug class is acarbose. Acarbose reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by slowing the absorption of glucose in the intestine. Acarbose did not affect the intake of glucose and insulin secretion. This drug is taken before meals. Side effects include flatulence, diarrhea, flatulence.

3. Biguanid
Examples of these drug classes is metformin. Biguanid working mechanism by lowering the production of glucose in the liver and slightly improve the intake of glucose in peripheral tissue. Besides these drugs also lower blood glucose and insulin levels during fasting, improved lipid profile, and help you lose weight. Given metformin in obese diabetic patients. The side effects are diarrhea, nausea, decreased appetite, and bitter tongue. Should not be given to patients with liver disorders, kidney and alcohol drinkers.

4. Thiazolindione
Group of drugs that includes this new type of drug works by lowering insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity, increase intake of glucose in peripheral tissue, as well as reduce production of glucose in the liver. This group of drugs including troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. Thiazolindione should not be given to patients with liver disease and severe congestive heart failure. Giving pregnant women is not recommended.

Friday, July 23, 2010

Elementary Forms of Insulin

Insulin has three basic forms, each with a speed and duration of different work.
1. Rapid acting insulin
An example is regular insulin, which works the fastest and most briefly. Insulin was started lower blood glucose within 20 minutes, reaching a peak within 24 hours, and work for 6-8 hours.

Rapid acting insulin is often used by the patients who underwent multiple injections each day and injected 15-20 minutes before eating.

2. Acting insulin was
An example is insulin zinc suspension or suspension of insulin isofan. Begin work within 1-3 hours, reaches a maximum peak within 60-10 hours and work for 18-26 hours. Insulin can be injected in the morning to meet the needs for a day and can be injected at night to meet the needs throughout the night.

3. Acting insulin long
An example is insulin zinc suspension has been developed. The effect emerging after six hours and work for 28-36 hours.

Insulin supplies stable at room temperature for months so that you can take them everywhere.

Selection of insulin to be used depends on:
- The desire to control diabetes sufferers
- The desire to monitor the patients blood sugar and adjust the dose
- Daily Activities patient
- The ability of patients to understand and study the disease
- Kedtabilan blood sugar levels throughout the day

Most are easy to use once-daily injections of insulin are working, but this provides control of blood sugar at a minimum.

Tighter control can be obtained by combining two types of insulin, which is fast acting insulin and the insulin is working. The second injection is given at the dinner table or when going to sleep tonight. The most stringent control is obtained by injecting rapid acting insulin and insulin is working in the morning and evening along with an additional fast acting insulin injections during the day.

Some adult patients require the same dose of insulin every day. Other patients need to adjust the dose of insulin depending on the food, sports and the pattern of blood sugar levels. Insulin needs vary with changes in diet and exercise.

Some sufferers experience for insulin resistance. Insulin is not entirely the same as the insulin produced by the body. Because the body can form antibodies to insulin replacement. These antibodies affect the activity of insulin, so patients with insulin resistance should increase the dose.

Injecting insulin can affect the skin and underlying tissues at the injection site. Sometimes the allergic reaction that causes pain and burning sensation, redness, itching and swelling around the injection site for several hours. Inject often cause damage to precipitate fat or fat.

These complications can be avoided by replacing the injection site and replace the type of insulin. On the use of synthetic human insulin resistance and allergies are rare.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Diabetes Treatment with Insulin

Initial therapy with insulin is given consideration in patients who are underweight (due to the drastic weight loss), patients with sick hearts, kidneys, and severe pain. Another indication of insulin:
- People with type 1 diabetes
- Diabetes Pregnancy
- Diabetes with ketoacidosis
- In the treatment of hyperglycemia nonketosis hyperosmolar syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes who can not handle blood sugar levels, such as surgery, trauma.

The types of insulin based on the peak effect and duration of works:
- Work quickly (insulin regular): peak 2-4 hours of work, long hours of work 5-8
- Work is (NPH): peak 4-12 hours of work, working long hours 8-24
- Working length (PZI): peak 6-20 hours of work, long hours of work 18-24
- Insulin combination: peak work 2-4 hours, 6-12 hours, and working long hours 8-24

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can not produce insulin, so insulin must be given a replacement. Giving insulin can only be done by injection. Insulin is destroyed in the stomach so it can not be taken orally. New forms of insulin (nasal spray) is under study. At this time, this new form of insulin that can not work properly because of different absorption rates cause problems in the determination of the dose. Insulin injected under the skin into the fat layer, usually in the arm, thigh, or abdominal wall. Used needles are very small so as not too painful.

Monday, July 19, 2010

Diabetes Treatment

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain blood sugar levels under normal circumstances. Blood sugar levels normal is really difficult to maintain. But getting closer to normal, the possibility of temporary or long-term complications will decrease.

Treatment of diabetes include weight control, exercise and medication and diet. An obese type 2 diabetes do not need treatment if they lose weight and exercise regularly. However, most patients find it difficult to lose weight and exercise regularly. Because it was given insulin replacement therapy or the oral hypoglycemic drug.

Ordering diet is very important. Patients should not eat too many sweet foods and should eat a regular schedule. People with diabetes tend to have high cholesterol levels, because it is recommended to limit the amount of saturated fat in food. But the best way to lower cholesterol is to control blood sugar levels and body weight.

All patients should understand how diet and exercise to control the disease. Patients must understand how to avoid the occurrence of complications. Patients should also pay special attention to foot infections. It is important to examine the eye so that the bias is known that changes occur in blood vessels in the eye.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes diagnosis based on symptoms such as polidipsi, polifagi, poliuri, and the results of blood tests that showed high blood sugar levels.

To measure blood sugar levels, blood samples are usually taken after the patients fasted for 8 hours or can also be taken after meals. At the age above 65 years old, is best done after fasting examination. Because after eating the increased blood sugar is higher.

Other blood tests can be done is a glucose tolerance test. This test is mainly performed in certain circumstances, such as in pregnant women. Patients fasted and blood samples taken to measure fasting blood sugar levels. Then the patient drinks a special solution containing glucose. 2-3 hours later another blood sample taken for examination. Examination to detect diabetes for normal adults glikosa done by checking blood levels during fasting. Especially for those who have a risk factor as above.

Criteria of diagnosis of diabetes according to American Diabetes Association is based on examination of plasma glucose levels in a state of fasting (without food for eight hours) and after oral glucose tolerance test.

Classification of diabetes on the examination of fasting blood sugar levels as follows:
- <110 mg / dL is normal
- 110-126 mg / dL is fasting hyperglycemia (impaired Fasting Glucose)
-> 126 mg / dL is diabetes

In glucose tolerance tests are checked after two hours were classified as follows:
- <140 mg / dL is normal glucose tolerance
- 140-200 mg / dL is disturbed glucose tolerance
-> 200 mg / dL is diabetes

Diagnosis of diabetes can also be based on if a person shows symptoms of diabetes with a fasting blood sugar levels without amounting to> 200 mg / dL. Examination of urine can also be used to detect diabetes, although less convincing. Hyperglycemia which occurs only after oral glucose tolerance test is a condition in a state between normal and diabetes.

Diagnosis of diabetes by ADA in 1998, are:
- There are symptoms of diabetes with blood glucose> 200 mg / dL
- Fasting blood glucose> 126 mg / dL and the glucose tolerance test after 2 hours of fasting is> 200 mg / dL.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Severe Diabetes Symptoms

Other symptoms are blurred vision, dizziness, nausea and decreased endurance during exercise, often feel tired, feel itchy and inflamed skin. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes are more susceptible to infection.

Severe diabetes symptoms:
- The occurrence of weight loss
- Occur itching or pain in your feet
- Occur at the foot of the difficult wounds healed
- Loss of consciousness or coma

Because of severe insulin deficiency, before treatment, patients with type 1 diabetes almost always lose weight. Most type 2 diabetics do not experience weight loss. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms occur suddenly and can quickly develop into a state of diabetic ketoacidosis. In blood sugar levels high, but since most cells can not use glucose without insulin, these cells take energy from other sources. Fat cells is broken down fields produce ketones, which is a toxic chemical that can cause blood to become acidic (ketoacidosis).

The early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis is thirst and excessive urination, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and abdominal pain. Breathing becomes faster because the body attempts to improve levels of blood acid. Patient breath smell like acetone.

Without treatment, diabetic ketoacidosis bias developed into a coma, sometimes within just a few hours. Even after starting insulin therapy, patients with type 1 diabetes may develop ketoacidosis if they do not to injections of insulin or experiencing stress from infections, accidents or serious ill.

Patients with type 2 diabetes may not show symptoms for several years. If the more severe insulin deficiency, frequent urination symptoms emerge and often thirsty. Ketoacidosis is rare. If blood sugar is very high (more than 1000 mg / dL), usually occur because of stress, infection or drugs, then the patient will experience severe dehydration, which can cause mental disorders, dizziness, seizures, and a condition called coma hiperglikemik -non-ketotik hiperosmolar.