Diabetes diagnosis based on symptoms such as polidipsi, polifagi, poliuri, and the results of blood tests that showed high blood sugar levels.
To measure blood sugar levels, blood samples are usually taken after the patients fasted for 8 hours or can also be taken after meals. At the age above 65 years old, is best done after fasting examination. Because after eating the increased blood sugar is higher.
Other blood tests can be done is a glucose tolerance test. This test is mainly performed in certain circumstances, such as in pregnant women. Patients fasted and blood samples taken to measure fasting blood sugar levels. Then the patient drinks a special solution containing glucose. 2-3 hours later another blood sample taken for examination. Examination to detect diabetes for normal adults glikosa done by checking blood levels during fasting. Especially for those who have a risk factor as above.
Criteria of diagnosis of diabetes according to American Diabetes Association is based on examination of plasma glucose levels in a state of fasting (without food for eight hours) and after oral glucose tolerance test.
Classification of diabetes on the examination of fasting blood sugar levels as follows:
- <110 mg / dL is normal
- 110-126 mg / dL is fasting hyperglycemia (impaired Fasting Glucose)
-> 126 mg / dL is diabetes
In glucose tolerance tests are checked after two hours were classified as follows:
- <140 mg / dL is normal glucose tolerance
- 140-200 mg / dL is disturbed glucose tolerance
-> 200 mg / dL is diabetes
Diagnosis of diabetes can also be based on if a person shows symptoms of diabetes with a fasting blood sugar levels without amounting to> 200 mg / dL. Examination of urine can also be used to detect diabetes, although less convincing. Hyperglycemia which occurs only after oral glucose tolerance test is a condition in a state between normal and diabetes.
Diagnosis of diabetes by ADA in 1998, are:
- There are symptoms of diabetes with blood glucose> 200 mg / dL
- Fasting blood glucose> 126 mg / dL and the glucose tolerance test after 2 hours of fasting is> 200 mg / dL.