Thursday, June 24, 2010

Examination Stage Cancer

Type of Inspection Other Organ Biopsy
- Breast - biopsy needle or biopsy - mammograms, heart scans
all the bumps and bone CT scan of the brain,
examination of the estrogen receptor
and progesterone in the sample biopsy

- Gastrointestinal - Network for the biopsy - chest x-ray, barium x-ray
taken with an endoscopic ultrasonic CT scan, scanning
or with a needle through the liver, blood tests for
skin into the liver, pancreas, liver enzymes
or other organs

- The lungs - lung biopsy and possible - chest x-rays, CT scans,
Sputum cytology pleural biopsy Mediastinoskopi

- Lymphatic System - A biopsy of lymph glands, biopsy - chest x-ray, cell differential count
bone marrow blood, ultrasonic CT scan,
Radioisotope scan, surgery exploration, splenectomy

- Prostate - Biopsy needle - Blood tests for acid
Phosphatase and PSA (prostate
specific antigen), ultrasonic

- Testes - Appointment testicle - chest x-ray, CT scan

- Uterus, Cervix, - Network for the biopsy is taken - pelvic examination, ultrasonic
Ovary during exploratory surgery CT scan, barium enema

Cancer staging
Determination of stages or phases in the cancer usually used TNM system (tumor, nodules, metastases), so that the cancer was diagnosed as follows:
- Q: describe the size of primary cancer
- N: describes how many cancer cells in the lymph glands
- M: describes whether the cancer has spread to other areas
Staging as described above, different for each type of cancer.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Determine Cancer Stage

If the cancer has been found, cancer staging examinations help the doctor in planning appropriate treatment and determine prognosis history of the disease. A series of examinations used to determine tumor location, size, growth into the surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Staging can be done using:
1. Scanning (such as liver or bone scanning)
2. The coloring of the network so that if there is cancer, pathological tissue can be detected
3. CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
4. Mediastinoskopi
5. Bone marrow biopsy

Sometimes surgery is needed to determine the stage of the cancer. For example, a laparotomy (abdominal surgery) allows the surgeon to lift or treat colon cancer, while determines the spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes. Analysis of lymph nodes removed at the time of surgical removal of the breast (mastectomy), to help determine how far breast cancer has spread and whether the necessary post-surgical therapy. Splenectomy done to lift the lymphatic system and help determine the stage of Hodgkin's disease (cancer, lymphoid tissue, lymph nodes and lymph).

Ultrasonic scanning is a noninvasive procedure and does not cause pain, which uses sound waves to show the structure of internal organs. This check is helpful in determining the size of certain cancers, especially cancers of kidney, liver, pelvis and prostate. CT scans are used to find cancer in the brain, lungs and abdominal organs. Including adrenal gland, lymph nodes, liver and spleen. With the MRI procedure, can determine brain cancer, bone and spine.

Limfangiogram is an examination in which dye is injected into the legs and then carried out x-ray photography. This examination helps find abnormalities in the abdominal lymph nodes and determine the stage of Hodgkin's disease and testicular cancer.

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Cancer Diagnosis

Detection efforts against cancer is with Digital Infrared Imaging. This technique allows a woman's health is monitored breast and cervical cancer for the presence of precancerous process. Even this tool can provide a warning 8-10 years before a tumor can be detected by other methods. This tool has been developed in the USA.

The working principle is that objects at a certain temperature will emit radiation of surface waves of electromagnetism that are invisible. Where the maximum intensity occurs at a wavelength of infrared light region. Chemical activity and the activity of blood vessels in the tissue surrounding the growing precancerous always higher than normal tissue.

Digital Infrared Imaging results may indicate a variety of breast abnormalities, such as mastitis, tumors, fibrocystic disease and cancer. The occurrence of any changes observed in the infrared map periodically month or yearly, can give a sign of abnormality.

Some screening tests that can be done at home, such as breast self examination every month can help women detect breast cancer. Regularly check the testis may help men with testicular cancer detection. One form of cancer that can recover if discovered in its early stages. Regularly check for open sores in the mouth that does not heal can help detect oral cancer in its early stages.

Doctors can usually determine the type of primary tumor by biopsy of cancer metastase and examined under a microscope. However, the identification of cancer is not always easy and hard to find certainty.

Monday, June 21, 2010

Killer Cell Therapy and Therapeutic Antibodies (humoral)

Killer Cell Therapy
In killer cell therapy, lymphocytes from cancer patients are removed from blood samples. In the laboratory, carried out irradiation of limfosir with interleukin-2, to mebuat killer cells activated lymphocytes, which will be injected back into the patient's body through his veins. These cells are better trained than the cells in the body's natural to find and destroy cancer cells.

Approximately 25-30% sufferer malignant melanoma or kidney cancer respond well to limfotin activated killer cell therapy. This manner of treatment is still in intensive research.

Therapeutic Antibodies (humoral)
This therapy is done by increasing the production of antibodies by the body. Material bacterium tuberculosis (TB) is attenuated, is known to increase the immune response, which has been attempted in several cancers.

The trick with tuberculosis bacteria injected directly into cancer, melanoma is almost always the result of a shrinking cancer. Sometimes the effect of treatment extends to tumors that have spread throughout the body (metastases).

Bacterium tuberculosis has also been successfully used to control bladder cancer has not spread to the bladder wall. Medications other eksperimantal linking tumor-specific antibodies with anti-cancer drugs.

Antibodies are made in the laboratory and injected into the patient will bring the drug into cancer cells.

Another option is to antibodies made in the laboratory that can be attached to cancer cells or white blood cells limfosit to killer and unite the two so that limfosit killer cells can destroy cancer cells. Recent research provides new hope for better treatment and may be able to maximize treatment outcomes. Some use part of the body (an oncogene), which are important in regulating cell growth.

Sunday, June 20, 2010


Immunotherapy works to improve the ability of the immune system find and destroy existing cancer cells. Researchers have created a biological response modifier. These materials are used for the following functions:
1. Stimulate the body's antitumor response by increasing the number of killer cells
to tumor or produce chemical mediators to recognize the cancer cells
2. Directly function as agents or chemicals tumor killer mediator
3. Reducing the body's normal mechanism in suppressing the immune system.
4. Change the tumor cells to increase the likelihood of triggering a response
immunity or to make tumor cells more likely destroyed by the immune system
5. Fix the body tolerance to radiation therapy or chemical materials
used in chemotherapy

Biologic response modifier of the most recognized and most widely used is interferon, Under normal circumstances, almost all human cells to produce interferon. But interferon also can be made by recombinant molecular biology techniques. Although the mechanism of action is not fully understood, but deketahui role of interferon in the treatment of some cancers.

An excellent response (cure) has occurred in approximately 30% of people with Kaposi sarcoma, 20% of young patients with chronic leukemia mielogenous and 15% renal cell carcinoma patients. Interferon prolong disease-free period that is expected in patients who experience healing from multiple myeloma and some forms of limfoma.

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Organs Against Cancer Markers

There are several tumor markers that can be examined to detect cancer, as follows:
- Esophageal cancer: CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen), SCC (cell squamos crcinonoma)
- Cancer nasopharyng: EBV, IgA, VCA
- Lung Cancer: NSE (neuron specific enolase), CYFRA 21-1, SCC, CEA, TPS
- Thyroid Cancer: tiroglobulin, calcitonin
- Gastric cancer: CA 72-4, CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen), CA19-19
- Colon Cancer: CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen), CA19-9
- Pancreatic cancer: CA 19-9, CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen)
- Bile duct cancer: CA-19
- Cancer hepatoma: AFP (Alpha Feto Protein), CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen)
- Breast Cancer: CEA, CA 15-3, MCA (mucin like carcinoma antigen)
- Cancer of the uterus: B-hCG (beta human chorionic gonadotropin), CEA
- Ovarian Cancer: CA 125, CA 72-4, CEA, LAI (leucocytes adherence inhibition test)
- Cervical cancer: SCC, CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen)
- Prostate Cancer: PSA (prostate specific antigen)
- Testicular cancer: AFP, B-hCG
- Bladder cancer: CYFRA 21-1, TPA
- Cancer of bone: alkaline phosphatase (SAP), lactate dihydrogenase (LDH)
- Multiple myeloma: Bence-Jones protein

Friday, June 18, 2010

Tumor Markers

Some tumor markers that have been known, among others:

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
Tumor antigens found in blood of patients with colon cancer, breast, pancreas, bladder, ovaries or cervix. High levels of antigen can also be found in smokers and patients with liver cirrhosis or ulcerative colitis. Therefore, high CEA levels do not always indicate cancer. Measurement of CEA levels in someone who had undergone cancer treatment, will help determine if cancer relapse.

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)
Under normal circumstances produced by the liver cells, can be found in the blood of patients with liver cancer. AFP also frequently found in patients with certain ovarian cancer or cancer of the scrotum and in children and adults who suffer from pituitary tumors.

Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-HCG)
Is a hormone produced during pregnancy, which is used as dasarbagi determination of pregnancy. This hormone is also found in women who have cancer that originated from the placenta and in men suffering from testicular cancer. β-HCG is a highly sensitive tumor marker. Its use in monitoring the treatment effect has been to improve cancer cure rate to more than 95%.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
High blood levels in men with benign prostate enlargement is very high and once in men with prostate cancer. Causing antigen high levels are still unclear. However, men with high PSA levels should undergo further examination to ensure absence of prostate cancer. Monitoring of PSA levels after a treatment for cancer can be explained whether the cancer was cured or not.

CA-125 levels in the blood increased in women with ovarian disease, including cancer. Because ovarian cancer is often difficult to diagnose. Some experts recommend cancer screening to test for CA-125 in women aged over 40 years. But screening tests are less reliable because it is less sensitive and less specific. Elevated levels of CA varies, in some circumstances. For example in breast cancer, increased levels of CA 15-3. In pancreatic cancer, CA 19-5 levels increased. In multiple myeloma beta 2-microglobulin levels increased. In testicular cancer dehidro genase increased lactate levels. However, none of which can be used as a cancer screening. This inspection is generally used to monitor response to treatment in patients with cancer.

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Tumor Antigen

Antigen is a foreign material known body and is a target to be destroyed by the immune system. Antigen found on the surface of all cells. Under normal circumstances, the immune system does not react to the cell itself.

If a cell becomes dangerous, or there are new antigens that are not recognized by the immune system appears in the cell surface, then the immune system may recognize these new antigens, called tumor antigens as foreign. Then bias transport or destroy cancer cells. However, sometimes the immune system is good berfungsu not always able to destroy all cancer cells.

Tumor antigens have been found in some types of cancer, namely malignant melanoma, cancer of the bone (osteosarkoma, and some gastrointestinal cancers.

Cancer patients have antibodies against tumor antigens. Antigen usually does not produce enough immune response to cancer control. Antibodies are not able to destroy cancer and sometimes even stimulate growth.

Antigens are released into the blood vessels by some cancer called tumor markers, and bias was found in blood tests.

Tumor markers are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

For example, blood tests help reveal whether the bias effective cancer treatment. If tumor markers are no longer found in blood samples, the possibility of treatment has been successful. If the tumor markers disappear and then appear again, possibly have a recurrence of cancer.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Specific Symptoms of Cancer

Brain Cancer: headaches in the morning and decreased after the middle days, the
incidence of a disease-related sudden with the head (eg epilepsy),
weakness, numbness in arms and legs, difficulty walking,
drowsiness, abnormal changes the vision, personality changes,
problems with memory and difficulty speaking.
Mouth cancer: there are sores on the mouth, tongue, and gums that do not heal.
Laryngeal cancer: persistent cough, hoarseness or husky
Lung cancer: persistent cough, sputum with blood, chest pain
Breast Cancer: found a lump in the breast, skin thickening (thickening), changes
shape, itching, redness, pain that is not associated with
breast-feeding or menstruating.
Bowel cancer: long lasting changes between diarrhea and constipation, the
presence of blood in feces, stomach was feeling constantly,
lump in stomach, pain after eating, weight loss.
Uterus Cancer: bleeding between menstrual periods, when extravasation
menstruation is not as usual, incredible pain.
Ovarian cancer: new information on the phase symptoms.
Colon cancer: bleeding in the rectum, there is blood in the feces, diarrhea
Bladder cancer: there is blood in the urine, when urinating, burning, frequent
Urinary and Kidney urination, difficulty urinating, pain in the
Prostate cancer: Urinary not smooth, the back waist, penis and upper thigh feels
continuous pain,
Testis cancer: presence of a lump in the testis, the testis size of fluid
reservoir Enlarged and thickened suddenly, abdominal pain
bottom, enlarged breasts.
Lymphoma: enlarged lymph nodes, itching, sweating at the time night's
sleep, fever, weight loss.
Leukemia: pallor, chronic fatigue, weight loss, often subject to infection,
easily hurt, pain in bones and joints, frequent nose bleeding.
Skin Cancer: lump under the skin, the infection does not heal, spots change
color and size, pain in certain areas, changes skin colors
form spots.

Frequent complication in cancer patients is infection, especially advanced-stage cancer patients. Infection occurs due to lack of protein and other nutrients, and suppression of immunization systems that often occurs after the traditional treatment. Infection can also be caused by hormones produced due to the constant stress in cancer patients. Hormone that is produced will cause suppression of the immune system called immunosuppression. These hormones include adrenokortikotropik (ACTH), which stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland cortex. Infection occurs also in surgery.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Cancer Symptoms

The symptoms of cancer depend on the type of tissue or organ affected. In general, cancer symptoms:
- Pain can be caused by an expanding tumor pressing on nerves and blood vessels
surroundings. Pain is also an immune reaction and inflammation to cancer
are growing. Pain can also be caused by fear and anxiety.
- Bleeding or unusual discharge, such as saliva, coughing, vomiting
bloody, bloody nose constantly, putting fluid milk that contains blood,
burrow fluids in intercourse, bleeding (between menstrual / menopause), blood in the stool,
blood in the urine.
- Change in bowel habit
- Decrease in body weight rapidly due to the lack of fat and protein, called
with kaheksia.
- Lump in the breast or elsewhere
- Persistent cough, hoarseness
- Digestive disorders, such as difficulty swallowing constant
- Deaf or the voices in your ear constantly
- The wound that does not heal
- Changes in a striking skins
- Anemia. Berbagais cause anemia because, in large part on their
metastatic cancer. Anaemia occurs early in those who suffer
cancer of blood-forming cells. Or cancer that causes chronic bleeding,
such as cervical cancer, colon.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Cancer Risk Factors

Hormonal Risk Factors
The hormone estrogen may function as a promoter for certain cancers such as breast and endometrial cancer. Women who menstruate have high estrogen levels, the formation of breast cancer risk increased in women who menstruate early and reach menopause later. Late pregnant or not having children can increase the risk of breast cancer.

Promoters Material:
- Hormones endogenous (produced by the body), such as estrogen
- Substance added to food, such as saccharin and nitrate
- Cigarette smoke, alcohol
- Tobacco can function as initiator or promoter

Psychological factors, emotional psychic
Some circumstances may cause interference on emotion or aggravate cancer, such as stress, resentment, hatred is deep. The role of psychological factors on cancer can be in several ways, such as stress, or grudge influence the development of cells into wild and the effect that weakens the immune system T cells that can not eliminate the cancer cells are formed.

Some protective factors
Women who breastfeed for at least six consecutive months decreased risk of breast cancer. Women who are pregnant a few times also have the risk of breast cancer is reduced. This deals with employment hormone progesterone. The hormone progesterone is protective against breast cancer by blocking the stimulating effects of estrogen. Progesterone increase during pregnancy, that's why a pregnant woman several times will reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Also decreases breast cancer risk in women who exercise moderately, as they may occur penuruna estrogen levels or decrease consumption of fat and preventing obesity. Foods that reduce cancer risk is the effect of foods containing substances that can clean up free radicals (oxidants), called antioxidants or free radical scavenger. Materials are included as antioxidants is someone that vitamins A, E and C are found in many vegetables and fruits.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Mechanism of occurrence of cancer (2)

Genetic changes have also been found in brain tumors and colon cancer, breast, lung, and bone. It may take a series of chromosomal changes prior to the occurrence of cancer. Research on poliposis familial colon (congenital abnormalities of the growth of colon polyps that turned into dangerous), has brought allegations of how this happens in colon cancer. Layer of normal colon begin to grow actively (hiperproliferasi) because their cells no longer have the suppressor gene on chromosome 5 that under normal circumstances to control the growth of the layer. Further minor changes in DNA facilitate the formation of adenomas (benign tumors).
Other genes (oncogenes RAS) causes adenomas to grow more active.

Loss of suppressor genes on chromosome 18 will further stimulate adenoma and ultimately the loss of genes on chromosome 17 would change the benign adenomas become dangerous. Other additional changes can cause cancer to spread widely throughout the body (metastases).

When a cell becomes dangerous, damaging the immune system can often be dangerous before the cells multiply and become a cancer.

Cancer tends to occur when the immune system does not operate normally, as happens in people with HIV / AIDS, people who use immunosuppressant drugs and on certain autonium disease. However, the immune system is not always effective so that cancer can penetrate this protection even if the immune system function normally.

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Mechanism of occurrence of cancer (1)

Most of the evidence indicates that cancer formation is a process requiring the exercise of multilevel latent duration, called the theory of the initiation-promotion in carcinogenesis. Cancer cells are formed from normal cells in a complex process called transformation. Consist of two stages of initiation and promotion.

Initiation-promotion theory states that the first step in carcinogenesis is a mutation of the DNA of living cells during DNA transcription. So that cancer can be generated from this initial event or mutation of this settlement, there should be an interaction that lasted longer for those cells with various substances promoter. Promoter substances are substances that stimulate reproduction and cell division. So many causes of initiation, the presence of various promoters, factors of heredity, age, and environment. All of it plays a role in cancer formation.

At the initiation stage or the introduction of certain permanent changes occur sutau genetic material of cells in the cell would be a dangerous lure.

Changes in the cell's genetic material is caused by an agent called a carcinogen, which can include chemicals, viruses, radiation, or ultraviolet rays of the sun. However, not all cells have the same sensitivity to a carcinogen.

Promotion is the process of induction of tumors in cells that had previously been initiated or induced by chemicals. Even chronic physical disorders were biased making cells more sensitive to experience a hazard. In promotion fase, a cell that has undergone the initiation will become dangerous. Cells that have not passed the initiation stage will not be affected by the campaign. Because it may take several factors for occurrence of harmful cells (combined from sensitive cells and a carcinogen).

In a process in which a normal cell be a dangerous cells, ultimately gene DNA (desoksiribonukleik acid) from the cell will experience changes. Changes in the genetic material of cells is often difficult to find, but the occurrence of cancer can sometimes be known from the existence of a change in size or shape of one particular chromosome. The more often splits and transcribed DNA, the greater the likelihood of an error. And undetectable errors will mutate and inherited. For example, an abnormal chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome is found in approximately 80% of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia blood cancer.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Causes of Cancer (Free Radicals Factor)

Free Radicals
Free radical is an atom, group of atoms or molecules that have unpaired electrons free in the outer circle. This molecule is seeking a new balance by taking an electron to other molecules or release electrons which there is no spouse. The existence of free electrons make free radicals are very unstable and very reactive. Small amounts of free radicals formed in normal cellular processes in all cells in aerobic, and is part of the immune system to resist attacks from outside. However, large amounts of oxidants are toxic and capable of reacting with damaging proteins, nucleic acids, fats and other molecules such as glikosaminoglikans (hialuronik acid). So, most free radicals potentially disrupt the cells. In small amounts, free radicals for the reaction function of cell metabolism, phagocytic cell function and signal transduction functions. Sulfur-containing amino acids and unsaturated fatty acid found in high concentrations in the brain very sensitive to these free radicals, and cause premature aging resulting in a variety of degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, heart disease and others.

Fortunately, under normal circumstances, cells have defense mechanisms in the form of free radical scavengers. Included in this group are vitamins and analogues such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), as well as enzymes which metabolize free radicals or precursors of such enzymes superokside dismutase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase. In general there are two kinds of antioxidants, namely specific antioxidants such as super oxide dismutase, peroxidase Gluthathione. Its mechanism of inhibiting the formation of new free radicals and antioxidants nonspecific like vitamins C and E that work by capturing free radicals that are circulating.

Here are the sources of free radicals:
1. Free radicals are formed as a byproduct of metabolic processes
2. Free radicals enter the body in the form of chemical toxins from food,
drinks, polluted air, and ultraviolet sun rays
3. Excessive free radicals are produced when we eat too much or when
we are in a state of excessive stress, whether physical stress, psychological or biological

In order to increase the antioxidants in the body, can obtain it through foods and dietary supplements. For it must consume food properly. Here are tips for eating healthy, increasing antioxidant:
- Eat vegetables are dark green, red, yellow and orange as much as 3-5 times a day
- Expand eating fruit 3-5 times a day
- Stop drinking coffee
- Drinking a cup of tea a day
- Drink fruit juices such as orange-colored, melon, papaya.

If the consume antioxidants in supplement form, consumed in moderation. Function as antioxidant supplements when pregnant:
- Vitamin C 500-1000 mg
- Vitamin A (Beta-carotene) 25000 IU daily
- Vitamin E (alpha tokoverol) 200-600 IU daily

Thursday, June 10, 2010

Causes of Cancer (Psycho Factors, Emotional)

Psycho Factors, Emotional
People are now much easier to feel anxiety due to various pressures in a society that increasingly complex, competitive and not always supportive. Indeed if you want to succeed, we need some stress at a certain limit to keep the body remain alert and vigilant, like in an athlete's training and fire extinguisher. However, excessive levels of psychological stress will affect less good for the body, thus arises the physical symptoms and psychological aspects. This can happen because of the severe state of stress, the body will issue a hormone-hormone vigilance in large numbers, including the hormone adrenaline. Adrenaline in the body causing the body in a state of full alert with increased blood pressure, heart blood pumping stronger, and cells of the body in a state of siege and under stress. This situation may change the pattern of growing and developing cells, where cells will be stimulated to grow in the wild and uncontrolled, so that there was cancer. These reactions usually occur when we are in danger, and danger will subside when the threat disappears. But if the reaction persists after state abated danger, or we live with too much in danger every day and the constant stress, the stress is already a disease.

Stress can also cause the body's cellular balance disorders. State of constant tension can affect the cells, where cells become hyperactive and the changing nature of the dangerous cancer causing. Stress also affects and upsets the balance of the immune system, whereby the development of T cells and natural killer cells depressed. These disturbances weaken the body's cells that recognize and kill cancer cells, that can cause the body vulnerable to various diseases, including cancer.

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

Cancer Causes (Factors Substance carcinogens and Hormonal Balance Disorders)

Substance Carcinogens
Here are other carcinogenic substances that can trigger the occurrence of cancer:
Chemicals Cause Cancer
- Arsenic - Lungs
- Asbestos - Lung, pleura
- Amin aromatic - Bladder
- Benzene - Leukemia
- Chrome - Lungs
- Nickel - Lungs, nasal sinuses
- Vinyl chloride - Heart
- Alcohol - throat, mouth, throat
- Betel - Mouth, throat
- Tobacco - Head, neck, lungs, esophagus, bladder
- Agent alkilating - Leukemia, bladder
- Diethylstilbestrol - Heart, vagina
- Oksimetolon - Heart
- Torotras - Blood vessels

Hormonal Balance Disorders
The occurrence of chaos in the hormone balance can lead to cancer. There is a tendency that excess hormones estrogen and progesterone deficiency causes an increased risk of breast cancer, cervical cancer and cervical cancer apda women, and prostate cancer in men. The hormone estrogen stimulates cell growth function which tends to encourage the occurrence of cancer, while progesterone protects the occurrence of excessive cell growth.

The sources of estrogen are meat, milk, cheese, butter, pesticides, plastic soft, anti-pregnancy pill, while the decrease in progesterone levels is because stress and excessive exposure to insecticides. Hormones estrogen and Bovine Growth Hormone are widely used to soften and fatten the meat, so the selection of meat should be very careful. Make sure the meat is consumed free of both substance.

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Cancer Causes (Factors Infections and Behaviour)

Parasites Sebistosoma (Bilbarzia) could cause bladder cancer due to chronic irritation of the bladder. However, other chronic irritants do not cause cancer.
Infection by Clonorcbis, which is especially prevalent in the Far East, can cause cancer of the pancreas and bile ducts. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that may be the cause of gastric cancer. Presumably this bacterium causes gastric injury and chronic inflammation resulting in increased speed of the cell cycle.

Certain behaviors cause the likelihood of someone suffering from cancer. Such behavior such as smoking and eating foods that contain lots of fat and preserved meat. So also with the behavior associated with sexual behavior. Multiple sexual partners and sexual intercourse at an early age, increases the risk of human papilloma virus infection associated with genital neoplasms. Infection by herpes simplex virus type-2 are transmitted by sex relationships may increase the risk of cancer. Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted by sexual relationship and increase the risk of liver cancer.

Monday, June 7, 2010

Cancer Causes (Factors of Chemicals and Virus)

There are several chemicals known to cause cancer and other chemicals are suspected of causing cancer. Irradiation of certain chemicals in foods can increase your risk of cancer after a few years later. For example, exposure to asbestos can cause cancer of the roof of the lungs and mesotelioma (lung cancer, pleural membrane). This risk is even greater if the asbestos factory workers was also a smoker.

Certain viruses cause human cancers and other viruses suspected of causing cancer. Papilloma virus that causes genital warts (genital) is one cause of cervical cancer in women.
Cytomegalovirus causes Kaposi's sarcoma (cancer of blood vessel system which is characterized by red skin). Hepatitis B virus can cause liver cancer. In Africa, Epstein-Barr virus causes Burkitt lymphoma, whereas in China, this virus causes cancer, nose and throat. It is apparent that some additional factors (environmental or genetic), required to trigger cancer caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Some retro virus in humans, such as the HIV virus, causes lomfoma and other blood cancers.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Causes of Cancer (Food Factors)

Food can also be an important risk factor for other causes of cancer, particularly cancers of the digestive tract. Smoked and pickled foods increases the risk of gastric cancer. Instead, consuming foods high in fiber reduces the chances of colon cancer. Reduce fat to less than 30% of total calories would reduce cancer risk of colon, breast and prostate. Alcohol drinkers have a higher risk of esophageal cancer.

Examples of cancer-causing types of food substances, as follows:
- Coloring and preservatives in foods or beverages
- Heterocyclic amines (HCA) found in meats that are fried or baked
over a prolonged period so overcooked. HCA is a substance causes
cell mutations (mutagens), which stimulates the formation of free radicals. Free radicals or
These oxidants can damage DNA genes.
- Trans Fatty Products Acids as margarine, processed products
- Eggs are dry
- Metals such as mercury are often found in contaminated seafood such as:
shellfish, fish and so forth.
- Various processed foods are excessively sweet.

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Causes of Cancer (Environmental Factors)

One of the most important cause of cancer is smoking. Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, mouth, larynx, and bladder. Chemical substances contained in cigarettes is the most dangerous and can cause cancer:
- Asetonnitrit and dioxins
- Nitrogen gas that causes a carcinogenic nitrosamines
- Substance polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the tar, a carcinogen and DNA damage
- Polonium
- Carcinogenic acetaldehyde, primarily in the skin

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet sun rays can cause skin cancer. Radiation at the uranium miners have been associated with the occurrence of lung cancer 10-20 years later. Higher risk if the miners also smoked.

Ionizing radiation (which is a carcinogen) is used in X-ray, generated from nuclear power plants and atomic bombs and can reach very long distances. For example, people who survived the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II, a high risk of cancer of blood cells, such as leukemia.

Friday, June 4, 2010

Cancer Causes (Descendants Factors)

Cause of cancer usually can not be known with certainty because it can cause cancer is a combination of a set of factors, genetic and environmental, that increase the risk of cancer. There are some cancers that are known causes

Descendants of factors
Genetic factors cause some families have a higher risk for certain cancers when compared with other families. For example, women's risk for breast cancer increased by 1.5 to 3 times when her mother or sister had breast cancer.

Some breast cancer associated with a specific genetic mutation, which is more common in some ethnic groups and families. Women with mutations in this gene have a chance of 80% -90% for breast cancer, and 40% -50% for ovarian cancer. Other cancer tends to run in the family is skin cancer and colon cancer.

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Cancer and Cancer Types

Cancer is a disease or disorder of the body as a result of body cells that grow and develop abnormally, beyond the acceptable limit and very wild. Condition of cancer occurs when normal cells change with rapid growth, so can not be controlled by the body and are not formed. Cancer can occur in any part of the body. When cancer occurs at the surface of the body, will be easily detected and treated. But when going on inside the body, the cancer will be difficult to know and sometimes have no symptoms. If symptoms develop, usually so difficult to treat advanced stage.

Cancer Types
Some types of cancer that has been known until now is:

Carcinoma is a type of cancer arising from cells lining the surface of the body or surface of the body channels, such as epithelial tissue such as skin cells, testis, ovary, glands muskus, melanin cells, breast, neck Ahim, colon, tektum, stomach, pancreas and esophagus.

Lymphoma is a cancer arising from tissues that form blood, lymph tissue for example, lacteal, lymph, various lymph nodes, thymus and bone marrow. Specific lymphomas include Hodgkin's disease (lymph nodes and lymph cancer).

Leukemia does not form a tumor mass, but meet the blood vessels and interfere with normal blood cell function.

Sarcoma is a cancer support network that is under the surface of the body such as connective tissue, including cells found in muscle and bone.

Glioma is a cancer of nervous system, such as glia cells (supporting tissue) in the central nervous system.

Carcinoma in situ
This is a term used to describe abnormal epithelial cells that are still limited in certain areas so it is still considered prainvasif lesion (abnormality / injury that has not spread).

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Introduction to Cancer (2)

Cells and tissues of the body continues to function in balance. There are now split, grow and be destroyed and then discarded. Cell or tissue in carrying out its functions can be impaired balance. One of the imbalances that can occur is the existence of a cell or tissue which grow wild and unbiased self-controlled and double grows, so grows the network or abnormal cells called tumors. There are two kinds of tumors:
- Benign tumors
Tumors that are not harmful not only to grow bigger and spread out its network.
- Tumor dangerous
Very different dangerous tumor, called cancer. Cancer is a cell that has lost control and normal mekasime so unnatural growth, wild and often spread far into other tissue cells and damage.

Cancer can occur in various tissues in various orrrgan every body, from feet to head. Cancer cells can be derived from all the elements that make up an organ. In line with its growth, cancer cells form a mass of tissue that infiltrated berbahya nearby tissue or bias spread (metastasize) to other organs.

Into cancer cells through a complex process called transformation. Cancer initially undergo a process of initiation, in which the genetic material change, which will be kenker. Changes can be spontaneous or caused by an element (agent) called the substance a carcinogen. Carcinogenic substances can be chemicals, certain foods (tobacco), viruses, radiation and ultraviolet light, and because factor of mental (psychic).

Genesis for certain types of cancer has indeed been altered. In this case the earlier cancer is often found now become rare.
Age is an important factor in the occurrence of cancer. Some cancers are influenced by age, such as Wilms' tumor, acute leukemia and lymphoma Burkitt lomfositik often attack people who are younger. The cause is uncertain, but one factor that plays quite important is the tendency of offspring (genetic).

But in general, most cancers occur in elderly. Prostate cancer, stomach and colon, most likely to occur after age 60 years (possibility of more than 60%). The increased incidence of cancer may be a combination of increased and increasing duration of exposure to cancer-causing substances (carcinogens) and a weak or declining immune system, particularly T cells and white blood.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Introduction to Cancer

Cancer is a term that is very frightening for anyone who heard it. Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that invade surrounding tissues and spread to other places. Cancer is a disease that is fatal and can spread to all parts of the body from head to toe, from skin to internal organs. Cancer is actually a term for a dangerous tumor, whereas other tumors are less dangerous tumor. Tumors or neoplasia or neoplasm is an abnormal tissue mass, which are autonomous and beyond the growth of normal tissue. Judging from the way it happened, cancer is divided:
- Cancer Metatastik, ie cancer that has spread from another body part
- Cancer arising from their own networks

Cancer quickly as possible should be detected, because the more rapid diagnosis, treatment with the opportunity to obtain good results for patients can be achieved. Once diagnosed late, the cancer will spread everywhere and the more difficult to cure. In many cases, there is no specific treatment for cancer, so just do the best possible care and keep patients in order to feel comfortable and can live a normal life. To that end, efforts to prevent cancer is absolutely done. Two main points of cancer prevention, namely:
- The physical act
- Measures of mental / psychological
would help overcome the cancer so as not to damage or becomes too late.

Cancer is a dangerous disease, but there is hope for remedy.