If the cancer has been found, cancer staging examinations help the doctor in planning appropriate treatment and determine prognosis history of the disease. A series of examinations used to determine tumor location, size, growth into the surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
Staging can be done using:
1. Scanning (such as liver or bone scanning)
2. The coloring of the network so that if there is cancer, pathological tissue can be detected
3. CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
5. Bone marrow biopsy
Sometimes surgery is needed to determine the stage of the cancer. For example, a laparotomy (abdominal surgery) allows the surgeon to lift or treat colon cancer, while determines the spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes. Analysis of lymph nodes removed at the time of surgical removal of the breast (mastectomy), to help determine how far breast cancer has spread and whether the necessary post-surgical therapy. Splenectomy done to lift the lymphatic system and help determine the stage of Hodgkin's disease (cancer, lymphoid tissue, lymph nodes and lymph).
Ultrasonic scanning is a noninvasive procedure and does not cause pain, which uses sound waves to show the structure of internal organs. This check is helpful in determining the size of certain cancers, especially cancers of kidney, liver, pelvis and prostate. CT scans are used to find cancer in the brain, lungs and abdominal organs. Including adrenal gland, lymph nodes, liver and spleen. With the MRI procedure, can determine brain cancer, bone and spine.
Limfangiogram is an examination in which dye is injected into the legs and then carried out x-ray photography. This examination helps find abnormalities in the abdominal lymph nodes and determine the stage of Hodgkin's disease and testicular cancer.