Thursday, September 23, 2010

Treatment of Avian Influenza

Treatment for patients with avian influenza are hospitalized at the hospital in isolation rooms. To get the appropriate treatment and care because this disease is dangerous. Patients should receive oxygen for breathing, fluid perenteral, antiviral drugs and other treatments required by patients.

Antivirus Drugs
There are 4 types of drugs that can be used as an influenza A antiviral medication that is: amantadin, rimantadin, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Four drugs can be used for the treatment of ordinary influenza (seasonal influenza). But not all drugs can be used to treat diseases caused by avian influenza A subtype H5N1 influenza virus. Based on research by experts, the H5N1 virus is resistant to rimantadin and amantadin.

Oseltamivir is administered orally and inhaled zanamivir are effective against the H5N1 virus. Besides being used in pengobata, oseltamivir also be used as prophylaxis or prevention of avian influenza disease.

The use of oseltamivir is closely monitored in order to avoid resistance to the drug. Therefore, while it is experiencing influenza, may not easily be drinking or drug oseltamivir as prifilaksis, must go through a doctor's prescription.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Avian Influenza Prevention Through Human

For high-risk groups (poultry workers, traders, poultry) is required the following actions:
- Always wash hands with soap or disinfectant
- Shower after work
- Avoid direct contact with birds affected by avian influenza virus
- Leave work clothes at work
- Immunization / vaccination

For society in general, keep in mind is to maintain personal hygiene and the environment and obtain the vaccination.

To maintain personal hygiene and the environment it is necessary to:
- No touching infected poultry of avian influenza virus
- Always wash hands after contact with poultry
- Keeping poultry in the right way such as: choosing healthy poultry, cook meat until done, and so forth
- Keeping the immune system with healthy living, eating nutritious food, adequate rest, exercising regularly and avoiding stress and smoking.
- Where was ill then have to wear a mask and avoid the places that are no outbreaks of avian influenza
- Do not consume food that is still raw
- Keeping personal hygiene and the environment remains well tejaga

Until now there is no vaccine that can prevent the development of avian influenza virus in humans. Vaccines for influenza is currently available for influenza illness caused by influenza A virus subtype H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B. Effective vaccine provides protection against common influenza to 70-90% in healthy adults. Influenza vaccine must match the type and subtype viruses, because the vaccine can provide protection against H5N1 body. The use of vaccines in humans must be careful to avoid mutation of the virus. But the vaccine can help reduce complications and supportive care in hospitals.

Regular vaccination against influenza is recommended for those who are more at risk for complications from influenza. The vaccine should not be given to patients with acute fever, pregnant women in trimester I and infants up to age 6 months.

Normally vitamin or supplement is not required. The best way to boost the immune system is by eating nutritious foods, regular exercise and healthy living.

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Prevention of Avian Influenza Through Poultry

Prevention of spread of avian influenza can be done by conducting preventive measures against avian.

The basic principle of prevention, control and eradication of avian influenza in poultry is by doing the following:
- Prevent contact with poultry is susceptible to H5N1 virus
- Eliminate the H5N1 virus with the decontamination / disinfection
- Improve your immune by vaccination
- Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy living and clean and care of the disease avian influenza

Precautions that can be done is:
1. Improve biosecurity, an act that strict oversight and safeguards against avian influenza infected poultry
2. Vaccination of healthy poultry
3. Depopulation or culling poultry infected with avian influenza viruses within a radius of 3 km.
4. Controlling traffic in and out of poultry.
5. Surveillance of avian influenza case.
6. Restocking.
7. Stamping out of all poultry infected.
8. Public Awareness.
9. Monitoring and evaluation

Things that should be done for poultry when an outbreak of avian influenza has not occurred:
1. Keeping poultry in good condition by providing clean water, food and vaccinations.
2. Maintain cleanliness and health of cattle.
3. Checking the goods that enter farms for free from avian influenza virus.

Things that should be done for poultry farms in the event of an outbreak of avian influenza:
1. Birds infected with avian influenza virus should be destroyed by burning and then buried.
2. Keeping poultry in a protected place such as in a cage separate from the house.
3. Limiting the people who enter the farm.
4. Always clean the cages, equipment and vehicles on the ranch by using a disinfectant regularly.
5. Storing manure away from ponds or water reservoirs.

Friday, September 17, 2010

Pandemic Influenza

If the virus influenza A (H5N1) can infect humans and spread easily to all people, it is called a pandemic influenza. No one knows when and how a pandemic will occur. So we need to be vigilant and be prepared to face all possibilities that arise. As well as trying to prevent it from happening virus spread easily between humans.

Pandemic Influenza
Pandemic influenza is an influenza epidemic in the world which caused a new influenza virus subtype is causing serious illness and spread easily between humans. The H5N1 virus into a pandemic influenza threat because the virus is a new virus to humans has never existed before and has infected more than 100 people. And there is no immunity against H5N1 influenza virus to humans.

There are some epidemiological parameters of the most good for pandemic influenza is excess mortality rate every week. As a result of pneumonia and influenza symptoms on average. Another additional parameter is the increase in the number of people who do not work and the number of patients who go to the doctor or hospital because of respiratory disease.

There are several reasons that we must be vigilant against the H5N1 virus, among others:
- The H5N1 virus is a new virus for humans, not previously exist among humans. This virus has infected hundreds of people with very high mortality rate of 80%
- Currently, poultry has become a reservoir for the H5N1 virus without showing symptoms of illness
- The H5N1 virus is compared with the year 1997, more lethal and able to survive longer
- The H5N1 virus has been infecting and killing mammalian species such as pigs, horses, cats and humans
- Conduct habitat H5N1 virus had changed. The presence of H5N1 virus in domestic birds, humans have increased the risk of transmission and spread in humans also the cattle industry.

There are 3 things that could start a pandemic influenza, namely:
1. The existence of a new virus
2. The virus can multiply and cause serious illness in humans
3. The virus is easily spread among humans

The H5N1 virus is potentially causing a pandemic.
Host virus H5N1 highly variable from poultry to migratory birds and are geographically spread almost throughout the territory in the world.
Economic losses caused by the death of poultry during outbreaks of avian influenza is very large.
Pandemic cause of death and a very high disease in just a few weeks.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Diagnosis Virology of Avian Influenza

Diagnosis of virology conducted to ensure whether the infecting subtype H5N1 or another. How ataumetode examination used to detect avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 were:
1. Serological examination to detect antibody / antigen on the patient's body
2. Isolation and identification of virus
3. Detecting H5 spesifih RNA by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)

A. Serology Examination
Antobodi will arise because of the efforts of the body to protect yourself from viruses that enter. Several methods can be used to detect influenza A virus-specific antibodies are formed in the body is the hemagglutination inhibition test, complement fixation test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigens in patients with influenza A virus infection can be examined with ELISA method.

Materials used for serological examination from the patient's blood serum. Currently available rapid test in the form of kits that can quickly deliver results, but less accurate. Results will be received within approximately 1-2 hours.

Because the results are less accurate and can not find a subtype of influenza A virus that infects, it must perform the examination began a more sensitive and precise to ensure that the H5N1 virus as the cause.

B. Isolation and Identification of Viruses
How to inspection by isolating the virus is the most excellent and very decisive. However, this examination requires sophisticated tools and techniques are also experts. So it is not used routinely in the laboratory.

Examination materials which can be used for the isolation of the virus is grown from sputum in patients with pneumonia. Virus isolation is done by planting material that will be checked on a network or embryonated chicken eggs, then examined influenza A virus subtype that has isolated them.

C. RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Method of examination was conducted to provide accurate results about the cause of the H5N1 avian influenza has been done and as a serologic confirmation. There are several kinds of methods have been developed to detect viral RNA of influenza A.

Molecular diagnosis has several advantages, such as sensitive. Because it can detect small amounts of viral components, is able to distinguish the genetic material with a higher level of differentiation, providing results in a relatively more rapid.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Case Definition of Avian Influenza

1. Suspect Case
Called suspect cases if there are symptoms of fever> 38 "C accompanied by at least 1 symptom and a result of virus / history of the following contacts:
A. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, runny nose, headache, sore throat and shortness of breath
B. The result of the virus / history of contacts:
- Inspection results positive for influenza A virus without knowing subtype
- History of contacts 1 week before onset of symptoms with birds that died because of illness
- History of contacts 1 week before onset of symptoms by patients who proved to confirm the laboratory
- Specialized laboratory workers handling samples from persons or animals suspected of being infected Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses working in the laboratory 1 week before onset of symptoms

2. Probable Case
Probable cases were suspect cases with positive serologic results indicating the occurrence of specific antibody titer increased by 4 times the normal value

3. Confirmed Cases
The case confirmed when positive results of H5N1 virus culturing or examination results by Rt-PCR positive for H5N1. Or an increase in H5-specific antibody titers greater than 4 times the normal value and the results of the IFA (immunofluorescence antibody) positive for H5 antigen.

4. Case Exposured
Exposured cases are cases that show no clinical symptoms or remain healthy but serologic examination showed positive results.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

Diagnosis of Avian Influenza

Diagnosis is done by:
1. Anamnesis of the symptoms suffered by patients, and a history of exposure or the presence of risk factors such as the death of sick poultry or poultry on the farm.
2. Physical examination, such as body temperature more than 38 "C, rapid breathing and pharyngeal hyperemia.
3. In the laboratory blood tests obtained by leucopenia, limfopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild to moderate aminotransferase levels increased slightly and kadara krestin also increased.
4. Examination levels of urea / creatinine, krestinin krease, albumin / globulin and blood gas analysis with tuhuan to know the status of the patient.
5. After radiological examination using chest x-ray images / piston. Then get a picture of scattered or localized infiltrate in the lung. This shows the process of infection due to viruses or bacteria in the lung, known as pneumonia. Preview radiology examination results to be indicators of disease worsening of avian influenza.

Thursday, September 9, 2010

Avian Influenza Symptoms

Symptoms of avian influenza among poultry and humans differ.

A. Symptoms in Birds
'- Blue comb
'- Bleeding evenly on the feet in the form of red spots or sores on the feet often terpata
'- The presence of fluid in the eye and nose causing respiratory distress
'- Out until thick clear fluid from the mouth
'- Diarrhea
'- Often thirsty and soft egg shells
'- Sudden death is very high and the number approaches 100% within 2 days maximum of 1 week
'- The incubation period is about 1 week

B. Symptoms in Humans
'- Preceded the incubation period which lasts several days, generally 1-3 days, in children can be up to 21 days.
Initially the patient showed symptoms of fever and influenza-like symptoms such as headache, cough, runny nose, muscle aches, and sore throat. Sometimes symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, nose bleeding and bleeding in mouth. In children frequently encountered symptoms of otitis media (middle ear infection).
'- A few days later, shortness of breath, that is one occurrence of infection in the lung
'- Complications will occur if the patient was taken to the hospital too late for treatment. Complications are respiratory failure and multiple organ failure characterized by symptoms of non-functioning kidney and heart, up to sepsis and even death.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Transmission of Avian Influenza

Diseases of avian influenza transmitted from poultry to poultry, from birds to humans and are restricted from human to human. Although until now there has been no contact by direct and indirect contacts possible.

A. Transmission Between Poultry
Diseases of avian influenza can be transmitted through contaminated air H5N1 viruses originating from feces of sick birds. Transmission can also occur through drinking water and food that has been contaminated by feces of infected avian influenza.

In poultry farms, transmission can occur through the mechanical equipment, cages, clothing, or shoes that have been exposed to avian influenza virus (H5N1), also the farm workers.

B. Transmission from Birds to Humans
Transmission of avian influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur when human contact with poultry infected with avian influenza virus. Or with objects contaminated by their faeces which contain the virus H5N1 illness.

Until now, cases of avian influenza in humans is more common in rural areas or cities with dense population. In this area removable and fowl are kept in a cage not included. Many birds found in the home cage or where children play. With these conditions it is very possible transmission from sick poultry to humans, because in the feces of sick birds have the H5N1 virus.

C. Inter-Human Transmission
Until now, transmission of avian influenza virus (H5N1) from humans to humans has not occurred. This transmission model is likely to occur, although not efficient, Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change genetically. Transmission of influenza A (H5N1) among human characterized with infected people in one group as in family, school or office. This is called a cluster.

D. Transmission of the Human Environment
Theoretically, this transmission model could be due to the H5N1 virus can survive in nature or the environment. Transmission that occurs because the water is contaminated by avian influenza viruses into humans through the mouth when the nose by swimming or water contaminated with feces from poultry infected with H5N1 virus. Poultry litter, especially the chicken which is usually used as a fertilizer plant is one risk factor for the spread of avian influenza.

E. Transmission to Other Mammals
Avian influenza virus (H5N1) can spread directly on several different mammals, namely pigs, horses, marine mammals, lions, tigers, cats, and ferrets.
According to the research that has been done, the pig does not play an important role in avian influenza caused by H5N1 virus in Asia.

Sunday, September 5, 2010

Spread of Avian Influenza

The spread of avian influenza virus (H5N1) through migrating birds. Poultry such as ducks and geese and gulls and sea birds are carriers of influenza A virus subtype H5 and H7. The virus is carried by birds is less dangerous. Poultry is also a natural reservoir for all influenza virus A.

Species that are sensitive or vulnerable birds infected with H5 or H7 are the types of poultry such as chickens, turkeys, quail, guinea fowl and birds kuau.

As a carrier of avian influenza virus subtype H5 and H7, these birds showed no signs of illness. This is due to H5 and H7 viruses found in these birds is less dangerous and low pathogenicity. This kind of virus only causes a decrease in egg production, broiler weight down. Once inside the body and circulation poultry, influenza A virus will adapt and mutate into a dangerous form within a few months.

It should be noted that the H5 or H7 virus in poultry need to be wary of. Because the virus can live in the human body and mammals such as pigs, cats and horses.

Friday, September 3, 2010

Avian Influenza Causes

The cause of avian influenza is influenza A virus subtype H5N1. Influenza virus included in the Family Orthomyxoviridae consisting of 3 types of pathogens for human influenza virus that is type A, B, C. Influenza virus A spiral-shaped symmetrical and has a casing that encloses the genetic material in the form of single chain RNA negative polarity. This virus has 2 types of protrusion of the haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Strains of type A were coded according to antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) as an example of H1N1, H2N2, H3N2 and H5N1. And there are 16 H subtypes (H1-H16) and 9 N subtypes (N1-N9).

In influenza A virus can occur major changes in antigenic composition, called antigenic shift. Or small changes in antigenic composition, called antigenic drift. Peubahan these changes that lead to epidemics and even pandemics.

The wave of the epidemic because of influenza A viruses periodically take place every 2-3 years, while the period of interepidemi for influenza B is longer ie 3-6 years. Every 10-40 years, when the influenza A virus subtype appears new, there will be a pandemic like the 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2). In the year 1997 has emerged a new subtype of H5N1, although until now has not resulted in a pandemic.

In humans there is only influenza A viruses of subtypes H1N1, H2N2, H3N3, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2 and H7N7. While the animal is a subtype H1 to H5 and N1 to N9.

Of all these subtypes, only influenza A virus subtypes H5 and H7 that have been known to cause a dangerous disease. However, not all influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 dangerous, and also not all cause disease in poultry.

It is important to know the properties of avian influenza virus (H5N1), because then to find out how Vitus H5N1 transmitted and how to prevent transmission.

The properties of avian influenza virus (H5N1) is:
- Easily change the shape and mutate
- Survival in water for 4 days at 22 "C and more than 30 days at 0" C.
- Survive live longer in the body of sick birds.
- Dead on heating 80 "C for 1 minute or with a temperature of 60: C for 30 minutes and at a temperature of 56" C for 3 hours.
- Off with detergent, disinfectant (formalin), the liquid containing iodine (betadine) and potassium sodium hypochlorite (bleach clothes).

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Introduction Avian influenza

Influenza disease was already there from earlier times. Because disease very easily spread, has occurred several times with the cause of pandemic influenza viruses of different influenza A subtype. Spanish flu which occurred in 1918 in which the cause was influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and make 40-50 million people died. Asian flu caused by influenza A virus subtype H2N2 occurred in 1957 also made a lot of casualties. Then in 1968 arising pandemic caused by H3N2 influenza with a death toll of about 1 million people.

Outbreaks of avian influenza caused by influenza A subtype H5N1 virus began to be known in 1997 in Hong Kong, With source of infection and spread from poultry farms. Furthermore, rapidly spread across the world to become global.

The development of avian flu occurring in Indonesia are also very fast since the virus was found in 2004, namely the birds and then spread rapidly in humans.

With the high number of deaths from avian flu, we need to be vigilant for this disease does not develop into a pandemic. For that preventive measures should be taken individually or in the environment.

Avian Influenza
Avian influenza is a disease penyalit caused by influenza viruses that are transmitted by birds, in this case chickens, ducks, birds, geese, turkeys and other.

Actually avian influenza disease is in animals (zoonoses). However, in its development, the virus that causes the disease have mutations that cause this virus can be transmitted to humans. Avian influenza can affect the whole nation and cause a pandemic in 2-3 year.

In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two forms of the disease that is the form of low pathogenicity (low pathogenic) and the highly pathogenic form (high-pathogenic). Form of low pathogenicity and disease does not kill often called Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Causes only mild symptoms and is usually not detected. The disease is transmitted carriers of avian influenza virus to domestic poultry. While the pathogenic form called Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Cause symptoms are very severe, and contagious diseases of the organ-menyabbakan organtybyh poultry. The death rate of 100% in just 48 hours in poultry. Examples of this virus is H5N1.