Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, or the cells do not provide an appropriate response to insulin.
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus produces little insulin or produces no insulin at all. The majority of type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs before the age of 30 years. The scientists believe that environmental factors (viral infections or nutritional factors) causes the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This occurs because of genetic predisposition. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, 90% of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells permanently damaged. The result is a severe shortage of insulin, so patients must get regular insulin from outside.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas still produces insulin. Sometimes the levels are higher than normal. However, the body develops immunity to its effects, resulting in relative insulin deficiency.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 can be in children and adults. But usually occurs after age 30 years. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese. Because 80% -90% of patients are obese. This type of diabetes also tend to heredity.
Other causes of diabetes:
- High levels of corticosteroids
- Pregnancy (gestational diabetes)
- Poisons that affect the formation or the effects of insulin