Treatment of diabetes type 2 diabetes primarily consisted of: control of blood glucose (diet therapy, exercise, medication), treatment of disease (hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia), and the detection or treatment complications. Eating arrangements generally have a maximum effect after 2-4 weeks. Similarly, the administration of drugs, generally provide a maximum effect within 1-2 weeks.
There are some things that need attention in the treatment of diabetes using oral hypoglycemic drugs, among others:
- Diabetes type 2 with normal body weight or more
- People with diabetes aged over 40 years
- Diabetes lasted less than five years
- Requires insulin dose less than 40 units a day
Sulfonylurea group of drugs that are especially useful in diabetic patients is only about five years or less. Because drugs (glipizide, gluburide) can improve insulin rapidly, this drug can be taken immediately after eating, so there is no hypoglycemia. The following types of more secure the sulfonylurea glimepiride. There are drugs other than sulfonylurea class of repaglinide and nateglinide, which stimulates insulin secretion by working directly on pancreatic beta cells. This last class of drug groups is given before meals, with the aim of reducing hyperglycemia after a meal. These drugs work quick and fast, so the impact of lower hypoglycemia.
This group of drugs should be administered cautiously in renal, liver, pregnant and lactating women and stressful. Can not be given in patients with type 1 diabetes.
2. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Examples of this drug class is acarbose. Acarbose reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by slowing the absorption of glucose in the intestine. Acarbose did not affect the intake of glucose and insulin secretion. This drug is taken before meals. Side effects include flatulence, diarrhea, flatulence.
Examples of these drug classes is metformin. Biguanid working mechanism by lowering the production of glucose in the liver and slightly improve the intake of glucose in peripheral tissue. Besides these drugs also lower blood glucose and insulin levels during fasting, improved lipid profile, and help you lose weight. Given metformin in obese diabetic patients. The side effects are diarrhea, nausea, decreased appetite, and bitter tongue. Should not be given to patients with liver disorders, kidney and alcohol drinkers.
Group of drugs that includes this new type of drug works by lowering insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity, increase intake of glucose in peripheral tissue, as well as reduce production of glucose in the liver. This group of drugs including troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. Thiazolindione should not be given to patients with liver disease and severe congestive heart failure. Giving pregnant women is not recommended.