Everyday we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Which will be metabolized and the body to produce energy used for physical activity and brain.
Glucose obtained from food would enter into pancreatic beta cells through GLUT2 transporter molecules. So that stimulates insulin secretion. In these cells, glucose will be burned into energy to perform daily activities. When there is insulin resistance, a series of reactions that activate the GLUT4 in muscle cells, heart and fat does not happen, so the sugar remains in the blood.
In the first hours after a meal, blood sugar increases and then decreases again due to the insulin work the muscle to turn it into sugar, and after two hours of blood sugar is normalized. When disturbed insulin work and not working properly, then two hours after a meal blood sugar remained high. This condition is called diabetes. Indeed the cause of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known with certainty.
Expenditure insulin regulated by glucose levels in the blood that occurs after eating. Glucose level above 70mg/dL been influential in the release of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. If this situation continues, the insulin will continue to be produced and enter the blood, so the hyper-insulinemia. Then the pancreas will be no longer able to produce enough insulin. As a result, blood sugar levels remain high, called the disturbance of glucose tolerance (IGT). IGT with hyperglycemia was found after eating (postprandial) and at the time of fasting. Failure of pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin was also influenced by genetic and elevated levels of free fatty acids in the fat and diabetic.
Diabetes Mellitus is not a contagious disease, but heredity. But that does not mean the child of two parents with diabetes will suffer from diabetes as well. Someone likely to suffer from diabetes when experiencing the following conditions:
- Both or one parent or sibling had diabetes
- A body fat
- Age above 40 years
- Hypertension and cholesterol
- There are disorders of glucose tolerance
- Women with gestational diabetes
- History class using corticosteroid drugs
- History of measles virus infection