The food we eat is generally contain three main elements namely kerbohidrat, fat and protein. Of the three elements that are the source of energy is karbohidat such as sugar, starch and cellulose. Sugar in the body serves as the main source of energy to move, a source of energy for brain cells and nerve tissue, forming the muscle sugar as reserve energy body, also to form protein and fat.
Sugar in the blood primarily derived from carbohydrate fraction contained in food. Carbohydrate sugar molecules can be divided into two main sections:
1. Single sugar / monosaccharide, a sugar with a single sugar molecule. Included here are glucose and fructose.
2. Sugar compound, consisting of two groups:
- Disaccharide or carbohydrates with two molecules of sugar, eg sucrose and lactose
- Polysaccharide, a carbohydrate consisting of more sugar molecules, eg
starch, cellulose and glycogen
The process of absorption of sugar from food sources can be divided into two stages.
- Phase one: the food you eat into the digestive tract of the stomach and intestines, where the sugar compound modified with a single sugar
- Phase 2: single sugar from sugar mejemuk result changes through capillary blood vessels penetrate the bowel wall and into the venous blood vessels. That's why a single sugar will have a direct effect on improving blood sugar when consumed.
Consumed sugar levels will be kept in balance by the hormone insulin produced by pancreatic beta cells in the stomach. Insulin will alter the single sugar is absorbed into the body of the sugar compound. Some are stored in the liver and a small portion of the brain as a major energy reserves. If blood sugar is still excessive, it will be converted into protein and fat, then stored as a second reserve for the body.
In a healthy condition, when fasting blood sugar levels ranging from 80-120 mg%, while 1 day after eating will reach 170 mg% and two hours after a meal will decrease until it reaches 140 mg%. If low blood sugar called hypoglycemia, and if high blood sugar is called hyperglycemia.