Diabetes Mellitus is a disease marked by high glucose in the blood, because the body is unable to release or use insulin adequately. Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increased blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) cause amount or disturbed insulin function. Because the disease known as diabetes mellitus and patients often sweet urinating. This occurs because excessive sugar content exceeds the limit in the blood, urine with removed through the kidneys.
Blood sugar levels in the body varies throughout the day. Blood sugar will rise after a meal and return to normal within two hours after eating. Normal blood sugar levels on the morning of 70-110 mg / dL. Blood sugar levels less than 120-140 mg / dL two hours after eating or drinking liquids that contain sugar other carbohydrates. Sugar levels tend to increase, but progressively after age 50 years, especially those who are less active or less exercise.
Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas organ, located in the abdominal cavity near the intestine. Is the main substance responsible for maintaining normal blood sugar levels. Insulin works to change blood sugar into muscle and stored into a cell or tissue, which is used to produce energy or stored as energy reserves in the form of muscle sugar.
Elevated levels of blood sugar after eating or drinking stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Thereby preventing the increase in blood sugar levels and cause more blood sugar levels have declined steadily. At the time of physical activity, blood sugar levels can also be decreased because the muscles use glucose for energy.
According to the American Diabetes Association / World Health Organization (ADA / WHO) there are four types of diabetes, which are grouped according to cause:
1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: beta cell damage caused by the pancreas due to autoimmune reaction. In this type of insulin is not produced.
2. DM type 2: for insulin resistance, the number of insulin receptors on the cell surface is reduced, although the amount of insulin is not diminished. This causes glukosa can not enter the cells although insulin is available. This situation is caused by obesity, especially central type, a diet high in fat and low carbohydrate, less exercise, heredity.
3. DM specific types: for specific genetic abnormalities, pancreatic disease, other endocrine disorders, because the effects of drugs, chemicals, viral infections.
4. Gestational diabetes: diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy.
The classification in any other way is based on the history of the disease. Than normal blood sugar levels (normoglikemia) until there was an increase in blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Ie disturbance of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), which does not need to be controlled hyperglycemia insulin, hyperglycemia that need to be controlled by insulin, hyperglycemia requiring insulin for survival.