Saturday, October 9, 2010

Ischemic Stroke

The brain can function well if blood flow to the brain does not experience obstacles. However, if supply of oxygen and nutrients carried by blood cells and plasma blocked by blood clots or thrombosis occurs in blood vessels supplying the brain, an ischemic stroke will occur. This can result in cell death / brain tissue supplied. Obstruction of blood flow to the brain can be caused by a thrombosis or embolism and hardening of the arteries called atherosclerotic plaques through the process of atherosclerosis.

Based on the clinical course, a stroke ischemic grouped into:
- Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): temporary stroke that lasts less than
24 hours
- Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND): neurological symptoms will disappear between
> 24 hours to 21 days
- Progressing stroke or stroke in evolution: abnormalities or neurologic deficit lasted
gradually from light to become severe.
- Completed complete stroke or stroke: neurological abnormalities has been settled and no
expand again.

According to the classification test of Neurological Disorders The National Stroke Part III, based on the cause of ischemic stroke were divided into 4 groups:
- Therothrombotic: blockage of blood vessels by plaque
- Kardioemboli: blockage of blood vessels by plaque fragments (emboli) of cardiac
- Lakuner: blockage of plaque on blood vessel-shaped hole
- Other causes that lead to hypotension

There are several causes of ischemic stroke:
1. Atheroma
In ischemic stroke, blockage can occur in the path of the arteries to the brain, such as an atheroma can form in the carotid arteries causing reduced blood flow. The situation is very serious because the carotid artery in normal circumstances to give blood to most of the brain.

2. Embolism
Fat deposition can also be separated from the artery walls and flows in the blood, clogging arteries and smaller. Carotid artery and vertebral artery and its branches can be blocked due to blood clot originating from elsewhere, eg, from the heart. Formed when fat embolism from bone marrow that broke loose in the bloodstream and eventually clog the small arteries. Embolic stroke due to blockage is rare.

3. Infection
Strokes can occur when infection causes inflammation narrowing of blood vessels leading to the brain.

4. Drugs
The drugs also can lead to stroke, such as cocaine and amphetamines. By way of narrowing the lumen of blood vessels in the brain and cause strokes.

5. Hypotension
Decrease in blood pressure that suddenly can cause reduced blood flow to the brain, which usually causes a person to faint. Stroke can occur if very severe low blood pressure. This occurs when a person experiences a lot of blood loss due to injury or surgery, heart attack or abnormal heart.

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